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Droplet spread definition betting offline betting

Droplet spread definition betting

The contacts are notified about their exposure. They may be told what symptoms to look out for, advised to isolate themselves for a period of time, and to seek medical attention as needed if they start to experience symptoms. The COVID virus primarily spreads when one person breathes in droplets or aerosols that are produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, talks, or breathes.

Physical distancing refers to actions taken to stop or slow down the spread of a contagious disease. For an individual, it refers to maintaining enough distance 6 feet or more between yourself and another person to avoid getting infected or infecting someone else.

School closures, directives to work from home, library closings, and cancelling meetings and larger events help enforce physical distancing at a community level. Slowing down the rate and number of new coronavirus infections is critical to reduce the risk that large numbers of critically ill patients cannot receive life-saving care.

According to the new definition, a close contact is someone who spends 15 minutes or more within six feet of a person with COVID over a period of 24 hours. Close contacts are at increased risk of infection. When a person tests positive for COVID, contact tracers may identify their close contacts and urge them to quarantine to prevent further spread.

Based on the new definition, more people will now be considered close contacts. Many factors can affect the chances that infection will spread from one person to another. These factors include whether or one or both people are wearing masks, whether the infected person is coughing or showing other symptoms, and whether the encounter occurred indoors or outdoors.

Though the "15 minutes within six feet rule" is a helpful guideline, it's always best to minimize close interactions with people who are not members of your household. The CDC's new definition was influenced by a case described in the CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report in which a correctional officer in Vermont is believed to have been infected after being within six feet for 17 non-consecutive minutes of six asymptomatic individuals, all of whom later tested positive for COVID Try to stock at least a day supply of any needed prescriptions.

If your insurance permits day refills, that's even better. Make sure you also have over-the-counter medications and other health supplies on hand. The coronavirus that causes COVID is primarily transmitted through droplets containing virus, or through viral particles that float in the air.

The virus may be breathed in directly and can also spread when a person touches a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touches their mouth, nose, or eyes. Safety precautions help you avoid breathing in coronavirus or touching a contaminated surface and touching your face. In the grocery store, maintain at least six feet of distance between yourself and other shoppers.

Wipe frequently touched surfaces like grocery carts or basket handles with disinfectant wipes. Avoid touching your face. Wearing a cloth mask helps remind you not to touch your face and can further help reduce spread of the virus. Use hand sanitizer before leaving the store.

Wash your hands as soon as you get home. If you are older than 65 or at increased risk for any reason, limit trips to the grocery store. Ask a neighbor or friend to pick up groceries and leave them outside your house.

See if your grocery store offers special hours for older adults or those with underlying conditions. Or have groceries delivered to your home. Wear masks. Physically distance. Socialize outdoors. Avoid crowded indoor spaces. Wash your hands frequently. These are essential precautions you should take to reduce your risk of catching or spreading coronavirus. But what about some other precautions you may be taking? Do they help, or is it okay to let them go?

Let's take a look. You don't need to wear gloves when running errands. It's true that a person can get infected if they touch a surface or object that has viral particles on it, then touch their mouth, nose, or eyes. But this is not the main way the virus spreads. What's more, gloves won't prevent this type of transmission, and may even make it more likely that you will touch your face. Instead, wash your hands before you leave the house, use hand sanitizer when you're out and about, and wash your hands again when you get back home.

In between, try to avoid touching your face. You don't need to disinfect groceries or takeout containers. The risk of infection from food or food packaging is very small. The CDC advises against using disinfectant intended for hard surfaces on cardboard or other grocery items, which can absorb the chemicals. If you are concerned about takeout, transfer food to your own serving dishes. And wash your hands and disinfect your counters after putting away your groceries or handling takeout containers.

Your mail can come out of quarantine. Mail does not pose a large risk, and putting your mail aside for several days before opening it is unnecessary. Once again, your best bet is to wash your hands after handling anything you bring in from outside.

You can invite your cleaners back into your home. If you've asked your cleaners to come back, request that they wear masks the entire time they are in your home. Leave the house while the cleaners are present if you can; otherwise, move to a different part of the house and close the door. Open windows to increase airflow throughout the house. It's okay to go for a swim. Pools are relatively safe, because the coronavirus doesn't spread through water and chlorine is a disinfectant.

Try to maintain physical distancing in crowded pools, but don't wear cloth masks in the water: they are difficult to breathe through when wet. Do wear a mask when changing, however, and minimize time in changing rooms, which are often crowded and not well ventilated. Try to look at this period of social distancing as an opportunity to get to things you've been meaning to do.

Though you might be avoiding the gym right now, that doesn't mean you can't exercise. Take long walks or run outside do your best to maintain at least six feet between you and non-family members when you're outside. Do some yoga or other indoor exercise routines when the weather isn't cooperating. Kids need exercise too, so try to get them outside every day for walks or a backyard family soccer game remember, this isn't the time to invite the neighborhood kids over to play.

Pull out board games that are gathering dust on your shelves. Have family movie nights. Catch up on books you've been meaning to read, or do a family read-aloud every evening. It's important to stay connected even though we should not do so in person. Keep in touch virtually through phone calls, Skype, Zoom, video, and other social media. Enjoy a leisurely chat with an old friend you've been meaning to call. The CDC now recommends that all adults and children over 2 years wear a mask when going out in public.

Even people who are infected but do not have symptoms, or have not yet developed symptoms, can infect others. Masks help minimize spread. They are to be used in additon to, not instead of, physical distancing. What kind of mask should you wear?

The CDC recommends masks made of two or more layers of washable, breathable fabric. Surgical masks are also effective, but pay attention to whether there is enough supply for front-line workers and emergency responders in your community. Make sure the mask completely covers your nose and mouth and fits snugly against the sides of your face without leaving any gaps.

While N95 masks are the most effective, these medical-grade masks should be reserved for healthcare workers. The CDC has information on how to make, wear, and clean nonsurgical masks. The WHO offers videos and illustrations on when and how to use a mask. There are some situations in which you might benefit from double masking. The rest of the time, a well-fitting, high-quality mask should be sufficient. Consider double masking when you will be indoors with other people — the grocery store, an office, or public transportation, for example — or in any indoor or outdoor situation where you will be around people for extended periods of time.

When double masking, try a snug cloth mask over a surgical mask. Surgical masks provide better filtration, but tend to fit loosely. Cloth masks close any gaps and provide another layer of protection. Cloth masks should be made of two or more layers of tightly woven, washable, breathable fabric. Your mask should completely cover your nose and mouth and fit snugly against the sides of your face without leaving any gaps.

If your masks are thinner or flimsier, double them up for more protection. We know that wearing masks can help prevent the spread of coronavirus by blocking droplets that are emitted when someone coughs, sneezes, talks, or breathes. But which masks are best and worst? Researchers at Duke University created a simple setup that allowed them to count the number of droplet particles released when people spoke the phrase "Stay healthy, people" five times in a row.

First, the study participants spoke without a mask, and then they repeated the same words, each time wearing one of 14 different types of face masks and coverings. As expected, medical grade N95 masks performed best, meaning that the fewest number of droplets got through.

They were followed by surgical masks. Gaiters ranked dead last. Also called neck fleeces, gaiters tend to be made of lightweight fabric and are often worn by athletes. Bandanas also ranked poorly. A couple of simple tests can help you gauge the effectiveness of your mask: If you can see through your mask when you hold it up to the light, or can breathe through it easily, it's probably not doing much to prevent spread. We've known for some time that masks help prevent people from spreading the coronavirus to others.

Based on an analysis of existing information, a new study contends that masks may also protect mask wearers from becoming infected themselves. Different masks, writes the study author, block viral particles to varying degrees. If masks lead to lower "doses" of virus being inhaled, then fewer people may become infected, and those who do may have milder illness.

Researchers in China experimented with hamsters to test the effect of masks. Many of the "masked" healthy hamsters did not get infected, and those who did got less sick than previously healthy "maskless" hamsters. A similar experiment cannot ethically be done in humans. But researchers have studied doses of flu virus and found that people who inhaled a higher dose of flu virus were more likely to get sick and experience symptoms.

Observations of coronavirus outbreaks in processing plants and on cruise ships also support the idea that masks may help protect mask wearers. Without more research, we can't be certain that masks protect the wearer. But we do know they don't hurt, and that they protect others. According to a study published in the journal Nature Medicine , widespread use of masks could prevent nearly , of , COVID-related deaths estimated to occur by March These numbers are based on an epidemiological model.

The researchers considered, state by state, the number of people susceptible to coronavirus infection, how many get exposed, how many then become infected and infectious , and how many recover. They then modeled various scenarios, including mask wearing, assuming that social distancing mandates would go into effect once the number of deaths exceeded 8 per 1 million people.

Modeling studies are based on assumptions, so the exact numbers are less important than the comparisons of different scenarios. You are better off meeting friends and family outdoors. We know that coronavirus spreads when someone breathes in virus that an infected person emits through coughs or sneezes, or when they talk or breathe. Research has shown that in a confined, laboratory setting, droplets containing viral particles can remain afloat for eight to 14 minutes. Smaller infectious viral particles, called aerosols, can drift around in the air even longer.

Outdoors, air currents are more likely to scatter and dilute the virus, making transmission less likely than in a home, office, or other confined space with limited air circulation. Even outdoors, however, it's important to maintain a physical distance of at least six feet and wear a mask, to reduce risk even further.

Coronavirus also spreads when a person touches a contaminated surface and then touches their eyes, nose, or mouth. If you are participating in an outdoor gathering, bring your own foods, drinks, plates, and utensils. But we do know that when it's hot and humid, people are more likely to stay indoors, with the windows closed — giving the virus more opportunity to spread. Coronavirus spreads through droplets that an infected person emits through coughs or sneezes and through smaller, infectious viral particles that can drift around in the air for several hours.

Outdoors, air currents can scatter and dilute the virus, making transmission less likely. You're more likely to inhale the virus indoors, with the windows closed, whether or not you have the air conditioning on. If you must be indoors with anyone outside of your household, increase air circulation by keeping the windows open as much as possible. There is some evidence to suggest that vitamin D might help protect against becoming infected with, and developing serious symptoms of, COVID We know, for example, that people with low vitamin D levels may be more susceptible to upper respiratory tract infections.

One meta-analysis found that people who took vitamin D supplements, particularly those who had low vitamin D levels, were less likely to develop acute respiratory tract infections than those who didn't. First, it may help boost our bodies' natural defense against viruses and bacteria.

Second, it may help prevent an exaggerated inflammatory response, which has been shown to contribute to severe illness in some people with COVID Our bodies make vitamin D when exposed to sunshine. Five to 10 minutes of sun exposure on some or most days of the week to the arms, legs, or back without sunscreen will enable you to make enough of the vitamin. Good food sources of vitamin D include fatty fish such as tuna, mackerel, and salmon , foods fortified with vitamin D such as dairy products, soy milk, and cereals , cheese, and egg yolks.

The recommended dietary dose of vitamin D is IU each day for adults 70 and younger and IU each day for adults over A daily supplement containing 1, to 2, IU of vitamin D is likely safe for most people. For adults, the risk of harmful effects increases above 4, IU per day. Stay current on travel advisories from regulatory agencies.

Testing of the Moderna mRNA vaccine against the new variants is underway. One, called B. The other, called B. Both variants have now been detected in countries around the globe. Both variants contain mutations on the virus's spike protein. Interestingly, both variants share a key mutation called NY on the spike protein, which allows the virus to bind more tightly to human cells.

They then took blood samples from 20 participants enrolled in their vaccine trial and exposed the samples to the mutated virus. They found that the antibodies blocked the mutated virus from infecting human cells as effectively as it blocked the virus without the mutation. More study is needed to see if these results hold up in real world conditions.

It's also not known how long this protection may last, and whether the vaccines will work against other mutations found in these variants. The vaccine is approved for use in people 18 years and older. VRBPAC is a group of outside experts in infectious disease, vaccinology, microbiology, immunology, and other related fields.

In briefing documents submitted to the FDA, the Moderna vaccine showed an overall efficacy of This study enrolled 30, adults; half received the vaccine, half received a saltwater placebo shot. There were infections among the study participants. Of these, were in the placebo group and 11 were in the vaccine group. All 30 cases of severe COVID occurred in the placebo group, strongly suggesting indicating that the vaccine reduces risk of severe illness.

The vaccine was similarly effective in people older and younger than 65, in men and women, in people with and without medical conditions that put them at high risk for severe illness, and in different racial and ethnic groups. The most common vaccine side effects were pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, and chills.

This vaccine requires two doses, spaced four weeks apart. This applies in particular to Persons who have symptoms of an infection with Covid as described by the criteria of the Robert Koch Institute at the time. Employers are urged to enable employees to work from home without bureau-cratic hurdles. The Senate Department responsible for health will announce publicly this in an appropriate manner. The restriction pursuant to sentence 1 shall no longer apply if the value referenced in sentence 1 is below over a continuous period of seven days; sentence 2 shall apply mutatis mutandis.

If the restriction stated in subsection 1a sentence 1 is in force, in the cases of numbers 1 through 5, 7, 9, 13 and 15, leaving the urban area of Berlin is also permitted beyond a radius of 15 kilometres. This shall also apply in the cases specified in number 10 if this is necessary in the individual case. Sentence 1 shall not apply if physical proximity less than 1. Those responsible for events must also document attendance if the event takes place wholly or partly outdoors.

Those responsible for canteens must also keep documentation of attendance where food or drink is served outdoors or is served for consumption by self-service in the approved outdoor dining area. The attendance list pursuant to sentence 1 is to be stored or saved in a place not accessible to third parties for a period of four weeks after the end of the event or ser-vice.

The competent authorities must be given access to the attendance list on re-quest to control the obligations according to subsections 1, 3 and 4. It must also be handed over or otherwise made available in an appropriate manner to the competent authority on request if it is established that one of the participants was ill, suspected of being infected, infectious or a virus-shedder within the meaning of the Infection Protection Act at the time of the event, visit or service.

After the retention period has expired, this attendance list must be deleted or destroyed. The persons responsible according to sentence 1 must ensure that the protective measures included in the protection and hygiene plan are ad-hered to. The main objectives of the protective measures to be taken are reducing con-tacts, complying with the minimum distance of 1. Another essential objective of the protective measures is to ensure contact tracing is possible using appropriate measures.

Notices stat-ing the regulations for maintaining distance and hygiene must be posted so that they are clearly visible. The sale and distribution of alcoholic beverages intended or suitable for immediate consumption according to their form of presentation, especially in glasses, cups or disposable beverage containers, are prohibited at all times. Sentence 2 shall not apply to commercially closed beverage bottles, cans or bags. At outdoor events, the minimum distance according to sentence 1 may be reduced provided that protection against droplet infections and aerosols is ensured.

By way of derogation from subsection 7, funerals and celebrations on the occasion of a funeral that are not included in sentence 1 are permitted outdoors with up to 50 persons present at the same time and in enclosed rooms with up to 20 persons present at the same time. The persons required for the performance of the funeral and the celebrations on the occasion of a funeral shall not be taken into account in the calculation of the upper limit for persons in sentence 2.

The person organising the assembly must draw up an individual protection and hygiene plan, which must specify the measures to be tak-en to ensure the minimum distance and the hygiene rules are observed, such as the requirement to wear a mouth-and-nose covering, if applicable, or the prohibition of participants chanting together during the assembly, and to ensure the number of participants permitted according to the usable area of the place of assembly when the meeting is held is not exceeded.

The assembly authority may demand the presentation of this protection and hygiene plan from the person organising the assembly and obtain an evaluation of the concept in terms of infection protection from the competent health authority. When carrying out the assembly, the organiser must ensure that the protection and hygiene plan is followed. Authorised hospitals may carry out planned admissions, operations and treatments provided that reservation and availability requirements are met and that the return to a crisis mode can be implemented at short notice at any time if the pandemic situa-tion intensifies.

It must be ensured that all persons receiving services are given basic, essential care and supplies. All childcare facilities provide emergency services for parents affected by the closure who are in urgent need of such care for their children in order to pursue their professional activities due to the lack of other childcare options if at least one parent is an essential worker. Also eligible for emergency care are single parents who are unable to arrange other care and parents who require care for other urgent educational reasons.

The Senate Department responsible for youth and families shall regulate details on the procedure for emergency care and its use. In doing so, it may specify general upper limits for the maximum use of emergency care in childcare facilities, including the procedure for implementing these upper limits, in addition to the specification in sentences 1 and 2. Sentences 1 to 5 apply accordingly to in-home child daycare and nanny services Kindertagespflege. Practical formats that cannot be carried out digitally and examinations can be carried out in a face-to-face format in compliance with the basic obligations and the protection and hygiene rules according to Part 1 and the particular regulations valid at the respective universities.

In particular, sentence 3 includes the following:. In practical formats according to sentence 4, the maximum number of 25 participating students may not be exceeded. In justified cases, the universities may grant limited access to persons in derogation of sentence 1. Sentence 1 shall not apply to the Botanical Garden. Academic libraries may only offer lending and online services. Degree certificates may be issued by public schools and alternative schools. Examinations at adult education centres Volkshochschulen and other adult educa-tion institutions may be conducted, provided that a distance of at least 1.

The Senate Department responsible for schools decides on the selection of facilities and those who have a right to use the emergency care services. Oral, written and practical examinations may be conducted face-to-face, including sport and musical examinations.

If programs are carried out face-to-face, it must be ensured that the provisions in this Ordinance are upheld. Excluded from the prohibition in sentence 1 are retail shops for food and beverages, tobacco products, writing supplies, newspapers, magazines, books and products necessary to care for animals, pharmacies, establishments with medical supplies and hearing and sight aids, sales points only selling Christmas trees, drugstores, health food shops, petrol stations, pick-up and delivery services, weekly markets limited to products permitted for retail shops, bicycle and car repair shops.

For shops with a sales area of up to square metres, a guideline of a maximum of one customer per 10 square metres of sales area applies. For shops with a total sales area of square metres or more, a guideline of no more than one customer per 10 square metres of sales area applies to a sales area of square metres and no more than one customer per 20 square metres of sales area in excess of square metres. For shopping centres, the re-spective total sales area is decisive.

If the size of the sales floor or business space is less than 20 sqm, a maximum of one customer may be admitted at a time. Incentives for staying in the business are not permitted. For pick-up, appropriate precautions must be taken to control how the pro-cess is carried out and avoid too many people gathering. The seating and tables must be arranged such that a minimum distance of 1. No persons are allowed to stay within the minimum distance area.

An enhanced cleaning and disinfection schedule must be ensured. It is not permitted to sell or give food or beverages to guests not belonging to the respective company under any circumstances.

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Sexually-transmitted diseases are in this category. For other germs, this can be an additional mode of transmission e. However, bloodborne diseases including hepatitis and HIV don't always require close physical contact, as transmission can occur through shared personal objects, like needles.

In daily life, safer sex practices are steps that can be taken to prevent direct contact transmission. In healthcare settings, standard precautions including wearing gloves, masks, and washing hands can prevent direct transmission. Some germs can live a shorter or longer time on a contaminated surface.

They may be spread to surfaces via droplets or transfer of mucus, blood, saliva, feces, or wound secretions. The objects that harbor these germs are called fomites. Surfaces that are touched frequently by different people carry the greatest risk, such as door handles, tables, restroom surfaces, eating and drinking utensils, writing utensils, shared electronic devices, and so on. Sharing personal items also raises the risk that they may be contaminated, such as razors, utensils, and needles.

Indirect contact transmission can be prevented by handwashing after using the restroom, before and after preparing food and eating, and after touching any shared surfaces, as well as not touching your face. Disinfecting these surfaces may also help. Norovirus is a classic example of a virus spread by indirect contact.

It can survive for days on surfaces. Contaminated food and water are the modes of transmission of many bacteria and viruses that infect the digestive system and are shed in the feces. Many kinds of stomach flu are in this category, as well as salmonella and E. Waterborne illness may result from ingesting, bathing, or swimming in contaminated water.

While municipal water supplies in developed countries are rarely a risk, you might be exposed when traveling, in times of disaster, or when in a river, stream, or pond. Foodborne illness is often due to improper hygiene. Failure to wash your hands thoroughly after using the restroom can transfer germs to food you are preparing or serving.

As well, improper hygiene can transfer fecal bacteria and viruses to surfaces, where others can pick them up and transfer them to the mouth hence, the name fecal-oral route. Mosquitoes, ticks, rats, dogs, and other animals can transmit some disease-causing germs to humans. In these cases, the germ must pass through the animal host before it can infect humans, such as with malaria. However, the germ doesn't always have to be inside the vector—rather, it may be adhered to the outside of the vector's body, though this is not the usual scenario with vector-borne disease.

In cases like malaria, it may be possible to control the spread by eliminating the mosquito vector. In others, including tick-borne Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever , it is best to avoid the vector. Vaccination of dogs and cats can prevent the spread of rabies. Many types of transmission can be prevented by good health and hygiene practices. When you are sick, stay away from others, especially those most at risk of complications if they become ill. Clean the surfaces you touch as much as possible, and be diligent about handwashing.

Looking to avoid getting the flu? Our free guide has everything you need to stay healthy this season. Sign up and get yours today. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Influenza flu : How flu spreads. Updated August 27, Survival of influenza A H1N1 on materials found in households: implications for infection control. Recognition of aerosol transmission of infectious agents: a commentary. BMC Infect Dis. Seto WH. Airborne transmission and precautions: facts and myths.

J Hosp Infect. N95 respirators vs medical masks for preventing influenza among health care personnel: A randomized clinical trial. Section Chain of infection. Safety precautions help you avoid breathing in coronavirus or touching a contaminated surface and touching your face. In the grocery store, maintain at least six feet of distance between yourself and other shoppers.

Wipe frequently touched surfaces like grocery carts or basket handles with disinfectant wipes. Avoid touching your face. Wearing a cloth mask helps remind you not to touch your face and can further help reduce spread of the virus. Use hand sanitizer before leaving the store. Wash your hands as soon as you get home.

If you are older than 65 or at increased risk for any reason, limit trips to the grocery store. Ask a neighbor or friend to pick up groceries and leave them outside your house. See if your grocery store offers special hours for older adults or those with underlying conditions. Or have groceries delivered to your home. Wear masks. Physically distance. Socialize outdoors.

Avoid crowded indoor spaces. Wash your hands frequently. These are essential precautions you should take to reduce your risk of catching or spreading coronavirus. But what about some other precautions you may be taking?

Do they help, or is it okay to let them go? Let's take a look. You don't need to wear gloves when running errands. It's true that a person can get infected if they touch a surface or object that has viral particles on it, then touch their mouth, nose, or eyes. But this is not the main way the virus spreads. What's more, gloves won't prevent this type of transmission, and may even make it more likely that you will touch your face.

Instead, wash your hands before you leave the house, use hand sanitizer when you're out and about, and wash your hands again when you get back home. In between, try to avoid touching your face. You don't need to disinfect groceries or takeout containers. The risk of infection from food or food packaging is very small. The CDC advises against using disinfectant intended for hard surfaces on cardboard or other grocery items, which can absorb the chemicals.

If you are concerned about takeout, transfer food to your own serving dishes. And wash your hands and disinfect your counters after putting away your groceries or handling takeout containers. Your mail can come out of quarantine. Mail does not pose a large risk, and putting your mail aside for several days before opening it is unnecessary. Once again, your best bet is to wash your hands after handling anything you bring in from outside.

You can invite your cleaners back into your home. If you've asked your cleaners to come back, request that they wear masks the entire time they are in your home. Leave the house while the cleaners are present if you can; otherwise, move to a different part of the house and close the door. Open windows to increase airflow throughout the house. It's okay to go for a swim. Pools are relatively safe, because the coronavirus doesn't spread through water and chlorine is a disinfectant.

Try to maintain physical distancing in crowded pools, but don't wear cloth masks in the water: they are difficult to breathe through when wet. Do wear a mask when changing, however, and minimize time in changing rooms, which are often crowded and not well ventilated.

Try to look at this period of social distancing as an opportunity to get to things you've been meaning to do. Though you might be avoiding the gym right now, that doesn't mean you can't exercise. Take long walks or run outside do your best to maintain at least six feet between you and non-family members when you're outside.

Do some yoga or other indoor exercise routines when the weather isn't cooperating. Kids need exercise too, so try to get them outside every day for walks or a backyard family soccer game remember, this isn't the time to invite the neighborhood kids over to play. Pull out board games that are gathering dust on your shelves.

Have family movie nights. Catch up on books you've been meaning to read, or do a family read-aloud every evening. It's important to stay connected even though we should not do so in person. Keep in touch virtually through phone calls, Skype, Zoom, video, and other social media. Enjoy a leisurely chat with an old friend you've been meaning to call. The CDC now recommends that all adults and children over 2 years wear a mask when going out in public.

Even people who are infected but do not have symptoms, or have not yet developed symptoms, can infect others. Masks help minimize spread. They are to be used in additon to, not instead of, physical distancing. What kind of mask should you wear? The CDC recommends masks made of two or more layers of washable, breathable fabric.

Surgical masks are also effective, but pay attention to whether there is enough supply for front-line workers and emergency responders in your community. Make sure the mask completely covers your nose and mouth and fits snugly against the sides of your face without leaving any gaps. While N95 masks are the most effective, these medical-grade masks should be reserved for healthcare workers.

The CDC has information on how to make, wear, and clean nonsurgical masks. The WHO offers videos and illustrations on when and how to use a mask. There are some situations in which you might benefit from double masking. The rest of the time, a well-fitting, high-quality mask should be sufficient. Consider double masking when you will be indoors with other people — the grocery store, an office, or public transportation, for example — or in any indoor or outdoor situation where you will be around people for extended periods of time.

When double masking, try a snug cloth mask over a surgical mask. Surgical masks provide better filtration, but tend to fit loosely. Cloth masks close any gaps and provide another layer of protection. Cloth masks should be made of two or more layers of tightly woven, washable, breathable fabric. Your mask should completely cover your nose and mouth and fit snugly against the sides of your face without leaving any gaps. If your masks are thinner or flimsier, double them up for more protection.

We know that wearing masks can help prevent the spread of coronavirus by blocking droplets that are emitted when someone coughs, sneezes, talks, or breathes. But which masks are best and worst? Researchers at Duke University created a simple setup that allowed them to count the number of droplet particles released when people spoke the phrase "Stay healthy, people" five times in a row.

First, the study participants spoke without a mask, and then they repeated the same words, each time wearing one of 14 different types of face masks and coverings. As expected, medical grade N95 masks performed best, meaning that the fewest number of droplets got through. They were followed by surgical masks. Gaiters ranked dead last. Also called neck fleeces, gaiters tend to be made of lightweight fabric and are often worn by athletes. Bandanas also ranked poorly. A couple of simple tests can help you gauge the effectiveness of your mask: If you can see through your mask when you hold it up to the light, or can breathe through it easily, it's probably not doing much to prevent spread.

We've known for some time that masks help prevent people from spreading the coronavirus to others. Based on an analysis of existing information, a new study contends that masks may also protect mask wearers from becoming infected themselves. Different masks, writes the study author, block viral particles to varying degrees. If masks lead to lower "doses" of virus being inhaled, then fewer people may become infected, and those who do may have milder illness.

Researchers in China experimented with hamsters to test the effect of masks. Many of the "masked" healthy hamsters did not get infected, and those who did got less sick than previously healthy "maskless" hamsters. A similar experiment cannot ethically be done in humans. But researchers have studied doses of flu virus and found that people who inhaled a higher dose of flu virus were more likely to get sick and experience symptoms. Observations of coronavirus outbreaks in processing plants and on cruise ships also support the idea that masks may help protect mask wearers.

Without more research, we can't be certain that masks protect the wearer. But we do know they don't hurt, and that they protect others. According to a study published in the journal Nature Medicine , widespread use of masks could prevent nearly , of , COVID-related deaths estimated to occur by March These numbers are based on an epidemiological model. The researchers considered, state by state, the number of people susceptible to coronavirus infection, how many get exposed, how many then become infected and infectious , and how many recover.

They then modeled various scenarios, including mask wearing, assuming that social distancing mandates would go into effect once the number of deaths exceeded 8 per 1 million people. Modeling studies are based on assumptions, so the exact numbers are less important than the comparisons of different scenarios. You are better off meeting friends and family outdoors. We know that coronavirus spreads when someone breathes in virus that an infected person emits through coughs or sneezes, or when they talk or breathe.

Research has shown that in a confined, laboratory setting, droplets containing viral particles can remain afloat for eight to 14 minutes. Smaller infectious viral particles, called aerosols, can drift around in the air even longer. Outdoors, air currents are more likely to scatter and dilute the virus, making transmission less likely than in a home, office, or other confined space with limited air circulation. Even outdoors, however, it's important to maintain a physical distance of at least six feet and wear a mask, to reduce risk even further.

Coronavirus also spreads when a person touches a contaminated surface and then touches their eyes, nose, or mouth. If you are participating in an outdoor gathering, bring your own foods, drinks, plates, and utensils. But we do know that when it's hot and humid, people are more likely to stay indoors, with the windows closed — giving the virus more opportunity to spread. Coronavirus spreads through droplets that an infected person emits through coughs or sneezes and through smaller, infectious viral particles that can drift around in the air for several hours.

Outdoors, air currents can scatter and dilute the virus, making transmission less likely. You're more likely to inhale the virus indoors, with the windows closed, whether or not you have the air conditioning on. If you must be indoors with anyone outside of your household, increase air circulation by keeping the windows open as much as possible.

There is some evidence to suggest that vitamin D might help protect against becoming infected with, and developing serious symptoms of, COVID We know, for example, that people with low vitamin D levels may be more susceptible to upper respiratory tract infections.

One meta-analysis found that people who took vitamin D supplements, particularly those who had low vitamin D levels, were less likely to develop acute respiratory tract infections than those who didn't. First, it may help boost our bodies' natural defense against viruses and bacteria.

Second, it may help prevent an exaggerated inflammatory response, which has been shown to contribute to severe illness in some people with COVID Our bodies make vitamin D when exposed to sunshine. Five to 10 minutes of sun exposure on some or most days of the week to the arms, legs, or back without sunscreen will enable you to make enough of the vitamin. Good food sources of vitamin D include fatty fish such as tuna, mackerel, and salmon , foods fortified with vitamin D such as dairy products, soy milk, and cereals , cheese, and egg yolks.

The recommended dietary dose of vitamin D is IU each day for adults 70 and younger and IU each day for adults over A daily supplement containing 1, to 2, IU of vitamin D is likely safe for most people. For adults, the risk of harmful effects increases above 4, IU per day. Stay current on travel advisories from regulatory agencies. Testing of the Moderna mRNA vaccine against the new variants is underway. One, called B. The other, called B. Both variants have now been detected in countries around the globe.

Both variants contain mutations on the virus's spike protein. Interestingly, both variants share a key mutation called NY on the spike protein, which allows the virus to bind more tightly to human cells. They then took blood samples from 20 participants enrolled in their vaccine trial and exposed the samples to the mutated virus.

They found that the antibodies blocked the mutated virus from infecting human cells as effectively as it blocked the virus without the mutation. More study is needed to see if these results hold up in real world conditions. It's also not known how long this protection may last, and whether the vaccines will work against other mutations found in these variants.

The vaccine is approved for use in people 18 years and older. VRBPAC is a group of outside experts in infectious disease, vaccinology, microbiology, immunology, and other related fields. In briefing documents submitted to the FDA, the Moderna vaccine showed an overall efficacy of This study enrolled 30, adults; half received the vaccine, half received a saltwater placebo shot.

There were infections among the study participants. Of these, were in the placebo group and 11 were in the vaccine group. All 30 cases of severe COVID occurred in the placebo group, strongly suggesting indicating that the vaccine reduces risk of severe illness. The vaccine was similarly effective in people older and younger than 65, in men and women, in people with and without medical conditions that put them at high risk for severe illness, and in different racial and ethnic groups.

The most common vaccine side effects were pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, and chills. This vaccine requires two doses, spaced four weeks apart. We do not yet know how long immunity from this vaccine will last.

The body recognizes the spike protein as an invader and produces antibodies against it. Soon after, the cell breaks down the mRNA into harmless pieces. If the antibodies later encounter the actual virus, they are ready to recognize and destroy it before it causes illness. Unlike the Pfizer vaccine, which requires ultracold storage, the Moderna vaccine can be stored at normal freezer temperatures.

This may allow for wider distribution to pharmacies and other facilities that are not equipped for ultracold storage. The vaccine is approved for use in people 16 years and older. The trial enrolled nearly 44, adults, each of whom got two shots, spaced three weeks apart; half received the vaccine and half got a placebo a shot of saltwater.

Of the cases of COVID that developed in the study participants, were in the placebo group and eight were in the vaccine group. According to the NEJM article, the vaccine was similarly effective in study participants of different races and ethnicities, body weight categories, presence or absence of coexisting medical conditions, and ages younger and older than It's worth noting that the FDA felt comfortable authorizing the vaccine for and year-olds, even though the number of teens enrolled in the study was small.

None of the study participants experienced serious side effects. However, most did have pain at the injection site. Also, about half of those receiving the vaccine reported mild to moderate fatigue or headache or both. Chills and fever were also fairly common. Symptoms almost always resolved within 24 to 48 hours. This vaccine requires two doses, spaced three weeks apart.

Although the vaccine appears to provide reasonable protection after the first dose, it provides stronger protection after two doses. Inside the body, the mRNA enters human cells and instructs them to produce a single component of the SARS-CoV-2 virus — the "spike" protein found on the virus's surface. Healthcare workers and residents and staff of long-term care facilities will be the first to get the vaccine.

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What does it mean when a team is ATS this season? Sports Betting. Best Books. Pictured: Travis Kelce. Steve Petrella. Download App. What Is a Point Spread? Click a section to jump ahead. Point Spread Definition 2. Point Spread Examples, How it Works 3.

What Does Mean Next to the Spread? A minus sign - means that team is the favorite. The Buckeyes need to win by 7 points or more for their bettors to win. Read now. Top Offers. Bet Over in Lakers-Nuggets. This SI Gambling feature explains what it takes to cover the spread. Designed to create action on both sides when one is deemed superior to the other, point spread betting was invented by mathematician Charles K.

McNeil and introduced in the early s. Against the spread ATS wagering is part of the standard big three betting options, which also includes moneylines and totals. Points spreads are a popular gambling choice in pro and college football as well as basketball.

LSU That means LSU needed to not only beat Clemson, but win by more than 5. Bettors who wagered on LSU easily covered the spread because the Tigers won by If the Lakers won by exactly six points, the bet would be ruled a push and whatever money was wagered would be returned to the bettor.

Many bettors like betting spreads because they either get a better return on their investment wagering on a favorite or because they like the underdog to keep the game close but not necessarily win. Betting on the Vikings to win outright as a three-point favorite would likely come at the cost of odds as opposed to Washington teammates Chase Young, Dontrelle Inman and Nick Sundberg testified to support police reform in Maryland during a virtual hearing on Tuesday.

Texas Tech head coach Chris Beard dropped to the court amid an animated outburst in final seconds of his team's loss.

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