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Diatto was an Italian manufacturing company founded in in Turin by Guglielmo Diatto to make 'carriages for wealthy customers'. Didcot is a railway town and civil parish in the ceremonial county of Oxfordshire and the historic county of Berkshire.

Dieffenbacher is an internationally active group of companies that develops and manufactures press systems and complete production systems for the wood panel industry, the automotive and composites industries. DieselJet s. V, in English National Diesel is a Mexican automotive producer of heavy duty and specialty trucks, urban buses, armored military vehicles, and intercity buses. A distributor is an enclosed rotating shaft used in spark-ignition internal combustion engines that have mechanically-timed ignition.

Dixiana Farm, founded in , is an American Thoroughbred horse breeding farm in Lexington, Kentucky. The Dolson was a brass era automobile manufactured in Charlotte, Michigan by the J. Dometic Group is a Swedish manufacturer whose core business is climate, hygiene, sanitation, food and beverage applications within the RV, marine, and automotive industry.

Dongfeng Honda Automobile Co. Dongfeng Motor Company Limited abb. DFL is an automobile manufacturing company headquartered in Wuhan, China. Dongfeng Motor Corporation is a Chinese state-owned automobile manufacturer headquartered in Wuhan, China.

Dongfeng Nengdi Hangzhou Motor Co. Yangzijiang Dongfeng Automobile Wuhan Co. Dongfeng Yueda Kia Motor Co. Dongfeng Yulon Motor Co. Dongfeng Yulon is an automobile manufacturing company headquartered in Hangzhou, China and a joint venture between the Chinese automaker Dongfeng Motor Corporation and the Taiwanese automaker Yulon Motor. Donkervoort Automobielen BV is a manufacturer of authentic hand-built and ultra light weight sports cars based in Lelystad, Netherlands.

DOT 3 is one of several designations of automotive brake fluid, denoting a particular mixture of chemicals imparting specified ranges of boiling point. DOT 4 is one of several designations of automotive brake fluid, denoting a particular mixture of chemicals imparting specified ranges of boiling point. DOT 5 is one of several North American designations of automotive hydraulic brake fluid, denoting a particular mixture of chemicals imparting specified ranges of boiling point.

DOT 5. In the context of the automobile industry, downsizing is a practice used to transition vehicles from one size segment to another. DR Automobiles S. The Dragon Automobile Company manufactured automobiles from to , first in Detroit, Michigan, and then in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Koninklijke DSM N. Du Pont Motors was founded by E. After the war, the Du Pont Motor Company produced extremely high-end automobiles. Durden and Co. Dutton Group is an Australian-based automotive company headquartered in Richmond, Victoria. Dynamatic Technologies officially Dynamatic Technologies Limited is an Indian company involved in precision engineering. Dynetics is an American private employee-owned , applied science, and information technology company headquartered in Huntsville, Alabama.

Eco-socialism, green socialism or socialist ecology is an ideology merging aspects of socialism with that of green politics, ecology and alter-globalization or anti-globalization. Ecoigo is an environmentally conscious London-based company, which offers corporate taxicab, chauffeur and private hire in the United Kingdom.

The economic history of World War I covers the methods used by the First World War — , as well as related postwar issues such as war debts and reparations. Compared to other popular modes of passenger transportation, the car has a relatively high cost per person-distance traveled. An economy car is an automobile that is designed for low-cost purchase and operation. Alberta's economy is the sum of all economic activity in Alberta, Canada's fourth largest province by population.

There's evidence to believe that Aurangabad was developed as a trading hub four centuries ago. The modern, private enterprise economy of Belgium has capitalised on its central geographic location, highly developed transport network, and diversified industrial and commercial base. The economy of Ghana has a diverse and rich resource base, including the manufacturing and exportation of digital technology goods, automotive and ship construction and exportation, and the exportation of diverse and rich resources such as hydrocarbons and industrial minerals.

The economy of Iran is a mixed and transition economy with a large public sector. The economy of Malaysia is the 4th largest in Southeast Asia, and is the 38th largest economy in the world. The economy of Morocco is considered a relatively liberal economy governed by the law of supply and demand. Nigeria is a middle-income, mixed economy and emerging market, with expanding manufacturing, financial, service, communications, technology and entertainment sectors.

The economy of Serbia is a service-based upper middle income economy with the tertiary sector accounting for two-thirds of total gross domestic product GDP and functions on the principles of the free market. The economy of the Philippines is the world's 34th largest economy by nominal GDP according to the estimate of the International Monetary Fund's statistics, it is the 13th largest economy in Asia, and the 3rd largest economy in the ASEAN after Indonesia and Thailand.

Edgar Staley Gorrell February 3, —March 5, was an American military officer, aviation pioneer, historian, manufacturing entrepreneur, and advocate for the airline industry. Edoardo Bianchi 17 July — 3 July was an Italian entrepreneur and inventor who founded the bicycle manufacturing company Bianchi in and the Italian automobile manufacturer Autobianchi. Edward Payson Bullard Jr. July 10, — June 26, was an American engineer, president of the Bullard Machine Tool Company for 40 years, and inventor.

Edward T. Edwin R. EFI Technology Inc. NS is the parent company of Royal Enfield, a manufacturer of middleweight motorcycles. Eisenach is a town in Thuringia, Germany with 42, inhabitants, located west of Erfurt, southeast of Kassel and northeast of Frankfurt. In the United States, Election Day is the day set by law for the general elections of federal public officials. Electra Meccanica Vehicles Corp. An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.

Electric resistance welding ERW refers to a group of welding processes such as spot and seam welding that produce coalescence of faying surfaces where heat to form the weld is generated by the electrical resistance of material combined with the time and the force used to hold the materials together during welding. An electric vehicle, also called an EV, uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. Electricfil, also known as EFI Automotive, is a manufacturer of automotive engine and powertrain sensors.

Electroplating is a process that uses an electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a thin coherent metal coating on an electrode. Elles Bougent is a French voluntary association created in in order to attract high school girls and young students women to careers in transportation engineering aerospace, automotive, rail.

Elmhurst is a residential neighborhood in the southernmost part of Oakland, California. Elmore Manufacturing Company was a manufacturer of veteran and brass era automobiles and bicycles —97 , headquartered at Amanda Street, Clyde, Ohio, from until Elwood Haynes October 14, — April 13, was an American inventor, metallurgist, automotive pioneer, entrepreneur and industrialist.

Emigration from Malta was an important demographic phenomenon throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, leading to the creation of large Maltese communities in English-speaking countries abroad. Employee pricing is a selling strategy launched in by the auto industry in order to attract customers by using the discounted prices that auto industry employees pay for new cars rather than the sticker price MSRP. Employment discrimination is a form of discrimination based on race, gender, religion, national origin, physical or mental disability, age, sexual orientation, and gender identity by employers.

The England—Germany football rivalry is considered to be mainly an English phenomenon—in the run-up to any competition match between the two teams, many UK newspapers will print articles detailing results of previous encounters, such as those in and Heat exchangers were initially developed to use plain or smooth heat transfer surfaces.

The EnOcean technology is an energy harvesting wireless technology used primarily in building automation systems, and is also applied to other applications in industry, transportation, logistics and smart homes. EnPro Industries, Inc. Environmental Stress Cracking ESC is one of the most common causes of unexpected brittle failure of thermoplastic especially amorphous polymers known at present. The ETAS Group is a German company which designs solutions and tools for the development of embedded systems for the automotive industry and other sectors of the embedded industry.

Etox is the first Turkish automobile manufacturer dedicated exclusively to building sports cars. Etwall is a village and civil parish in Derbyshire, England, southwest of Derby on the A Eugene Bordinat, Jr. February 10, — August 11, was a Ford Motor Company styling executive whose career spanned several decades. The ENX Association is an association of European vehicle manufacturers, suppliers and organisations.

Excon Worldwide, Inc. The export of cryptographic technology and devices from the United States was severely restricted by U. Fabbrica Ligure Automobili Genova, F. Facel S. An automotive facelift also known as mid-generational refresh, minor model change or minor model update, life cycle impulse comprises changes to a car, truck or bus's styling during its production run — including, to highly variable degree, new sheetmetal, interior design elements or mechanical changes — allowing a carmaker to freshen a model without complete redesign.

Factory Five Racing, Inc. Faurecia is the 6th largest international automotive parts manufacturer in the world; in it was 1 for vehicle interiors and emission control technology. A is a bank dedicated to motorists, which mainly operates in the automotive financing sector and cooperates with prestigious automotive brands Alfa Romeo, Chrysler, Fiat, Fiat Professional, Jeep, Abarth, Maserati, Jaguar and Land Rover as well as motorhome and caravan manufacturers.

FCA Italy S. Felt is a textile material that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing fibers together. Ferdinand Anton Ernst Porsche 19 September — 27 March , mainly known as Ferry Porsche, was an Austrian technical automobile designer and automaker-entrepreneur. The Ferrari S commonly or Sport was the first vehicle produced and built by automaker Ferrari of Modena, Italy. Ferreycorp is a Peruvian conglomerate engaged in the import, distribution, sale, leasing and maintenance of construction, mining, agricultural and transport equipment, vehicles and machinery such as, tractors, trucks and excavators under the Caterpillar, Iveco, Yutong, Massey Ferguson, Terex and many others brands.

Fial Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Legnano , direct translation Italian Automobile Factory Legnano, was a company that manufactured industrial and marine engines in Legnano. The Fiat and Fiat are automobiles which were manufactured by the Italian automaker Fiat from to The Fiat and Fiat are passenger cars produced by Italian automotive manufacturer Fiat from to and from to respectively. The Fiat and are six-cylinder saloons produced by Italian automotive manufacturer Fiat between and The Fiat is a six-cylinder executive car which was produced by Italian automotive manufacturer Fiat between and The Fiat was a model of car produced by Italian automotive manufacturer Fiat between and as a replacement for the The Fiat is a model of car produced by the Italian automotive company, Fiat between and The Fiat was a model of car produced by Italian automotive company, Fiat between and Fiat is a car which was produced by Italian automotive manufacturer Fiat between and Fiat Automobiles S.

Fiat Automobiles was formed in January when Fiat reorganized its automobile business, and traces its history back to when the first Fiat automobile, the Fiat 4 HP, was produced. Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N. Fiat Powertrain Technologies FPT was established in March as a Fiat Group division which included all the activities related to powertrains and transmissions.

Fiat Professional is the brand name and subsidiary for FCA Italy's formerly Fiat Group Automobiles light commercial vehicles and their passenger variants. Fiat S. A first article inspection FAI is a design verification and design history file and a formal method of providing a reported measurement for a given manufacturing process.

First-party leads are sales leads that contain the contact information provided by prospective customers directly to the potential seller. Fisker Automotive was a company known for producing the Fisker Karma, which was one of the world's first production luxury plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

Fisker Inc. A flagship is a vessel used by the commanding officer of a group of naval ships, characteristically a flag officer entitled by custom to fly a distinguishing flag. FlexLink, also FlexLink AB, is a manufacturer of flexible, modular conveyors and industrial automation equipment. The — Flint sit-down strike against General Motors also known as the General Motors sit-down strike, the great GM sit-down strike, and other variants changed the United Automobile Workers UAW from a collection of isolated locals on the fringes of the industry into a major labor union and led to the unionization of the domestic United States automobile industry.

Flint, Michigan is a city which previously relied on its auto industry, and still does to an extent. Flowmaster Ltd. A fluid coupling or hydraulic coupling is a hydrodynamic device used to transmit rotating mechanical power.

A fluidized bed concentrator FBC is an industrial process for the treatment of exhaust air. The Forbes Global is an annual ranking of the top 2, public companies in the world by Forbes magazine. The Forbes list of Indian billionaires is based on an annual assessment of wealth and assets compiled and published by Forbes magazine in March Ford Motor Company commonly referred to simply as "Ford" is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit.

Ford Motor Company of Canada Ltd. Ford Motor Company Philippines, Inc. The fourth generation Ford Mustang was an automobile produced by the American manufacturer Ford for the through model years. Ford New Zealand. Ford Performance formerly Ford Racing is the high performance division of Ford Motor Company and the multinational name used for its motorsport and racing activity.

Ford Romania is an automobile manufacturing company operated by Ford of Europe, located in Craiova, Romania. The Ford Southampton plant was a motor vehicle assembly plant, located in Swaythling on the north eastern outskirts of Southampton, England. Fornasari was an Italian car manufacturer that was created in by Giuseppe Fornasari.

The Fortune Global , also known as Global , is an annual ranking of the top corporations worldwide as measured by revenue and the list is compiled and published annually by Fortune magazine. Beiqi Foton Motor Co.

Foton Motor or Foton is a Chinese company which designs and manufactures trucks, buses, sport utility vehicles and agricultural machinery. A four-slide, also known as a multislide, multi-slide, or four-way, is a metalworking machine tool used in the high-volume manufacture of small stamped components from bar or wire stock. French—Turkish relations cover a long period from the 16th century to the present, starting with the alliance established between Francis I and Suleiman the Magnificent.

Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main "Frankfurt on the Main" , is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany. Frankston is an outer-suburb of Melbourne in Victoria, Australia, in the local government area of the City of Frankston. Freenex Co, Ltd. Frese Motorcars, Inc. The FTE automotive Group is a German automotive manufacturing company specialized in the sector of drive train and brake system applications for the automotive industry.

A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work. Fujian Benz Automotive Co. Full-mold casting is an evaporative-pattern casting process which is a combination of sand casting and lost-foam casting.

Functional safety is the part of the overall safety of a system or piece of equipment that depends on the system or equipment operating correctly in response to its inputs, including the safe management of likely operator errors, hardware failures and environmental changes. Fusible core injection molding, also known as lost core injection molding, is a specialized plastic injection molding process used to mold internal cavities or undercuts that are not possible to mold with demoldable cores.

Galvannealed or galvanneal galvannealed steel is the result from the processes of galvanizing followed by annealing of sheet steel. Garmin Ltd. General Gordon Baker Jr. General Cable is a company based in Highland Heights, Kentucky, with sales offices and manufacturing facilities in several countries.

General Motors Company, commonly referred to as General Motors GM , is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit that designs, manufactures, markets, and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, and sells financial services. General Motors Egypt S. Georg Kraus born July 30, is a German management consultant and writer;, the founder of the Dr. George P. Johnson or GPJ is an American multinational corporation that specialises in event marketing and brand marketing, with headquarters located in Auburn Hills, Michigan, United States.

George Romney ran for the Republican Party nomination in the United States presidential election. Georges Besse 25 December , in Clermont-Ferrand, France — 17 November , in Paris was a French businessman who led several large state-controlled French companies during his lifetime.

Gestigon stylized as gestigon is a software development company founded in September by Sascha Klement, Erhardt Barth, and Thomas Martinetz. Getrag, stylized as GETRAG, is the world's largest supplier of transmission systems for passenger cars and commercial vehicles.

Geunyoung Industry Co, Ltd. The Ghabbour Group is an Egyptian manufacturer of automobiles, buses, trucks and motorcycles located in Cairo. Ghandhara Nissan is a Pakistani automobile manufacturer based in Karachi, Pakistan since Giannini Automobili S. Gibson Technology is an automotive and motorsport company based at Repton, Derbyshire, England. Gigabit Video Interface GVIF is a digital video serial interface developed by Sony in for high quality uncompressed video transmission from digital video hardware.

Gillet is a Belgian automobile manufacturer, started in by former racing driver Tony Gillet. Gillet Herstal was a Belgian manufacturer of motorcycles and automobiles based in Herstal. GKN plc is a British multinational automotive and aerospace components company headquartered in Redditch, Worcestershire.

GKN Driveline is a multinational automotive components manufacturer specialising in driveline technologies. GLM Co. GM Components Holdings is an automotive components producer and distributor based in the United States. General Motors Vietnam Company, Ltd. Goiana is a city in Brazil in the northeast of the state of Pernambuco, about 65 km north of the city of Recife. Goji Electronics, Inc. Borgward and Wilhelm Tecklenborg in , and was part of the Borgward group. Gonow officially Zhejiang Gonow Auto Co.

Grade Automobilwerke AG was an automobile manufacturing company established by the German aviation pioneer Hans Grade in and was closed in the late s. Graham-Paige was an American automobile manufacturer founded by brothers Joseph B. Grand Rapids is the second-largest city in Michigan, and the largest city in West Michigan.

Grant Maloy Smith born August 28, is an American singer, songwriter, musician, and businessman. The Great Depression in the United Kingdom, also known as the Great Slump, was a period of national economic downturn in the s, which had its origins in the global Great Depression.

Greater Los Angeles is the second-largest urban region in the United States, encompassing five counties in southern California, extending from Ventura County in the west to San Bernardino County and Riverside County on the east, with Los Angeles County in the center and Orange County to the southeast.

Grout Brothers was a manufacturer of steam-powered automobiles in Orange, Massachusetts. Grrr was a advertising campaign launched by Honda to promote its newly launched i-CTDi diesel engines in the United Kingdom. Grupo Industrial Ramirez was the first Mexican automotive company and also the first Mexican company to ever produce pickup trucks and vans. Gruppo Bertone, commonly known simply as Bertone, was an Italian automobile company, which specialized in car styling, coachbuilding and manufacturing.

Guardian Industries is a privately held industrial manufacturer of glass, automotive and building products based in Auburn Hills, Michigan. De Guzman in Haden Drysys International played a major part in the development of the paint finishing industry.

Hafei, officially Hafei Motor Co. Hako GmbH is a manufacturer of street sweeping equipment and ultra-light commercial vehicles, headquartered in Bad Oldesloe, Germany with customers in about sixty countries. Hampson Industries plc was a large British provider of engineering services to the aerospace and automotive industries. Hansa-Automobil Gesellschaft m.

Harry C. Hartford is a city in Washington and Dodge counties in the U. Hawker Aircraft Limited was a British aircraft manufacturer responsible for some of the most famous products in British aviation history. Hay Automobiltechnik based in Bockenau, Germany, is an automotive corporation from Germany which is the largest European producer of flywheels, hot rolled seamless rings and final drive gears and crown wheels for differential gears. The Haynes Automobile Company was a United States automobile manufacturing company that produced automobiles in Kokomo, Indiana, from to Heavy industry is industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and heavy products; large and heavy equipment and facilities such as heavy equipment, large machine tools, and huge buildings ; or complex or numerous processes.

The Henokiens is an association of companies who have been continuously operating and remain family-owned for years or more, and whose descendants still operate at management level. Henry D. Sahakian was the founder of Uni-Mart, which quickly became one of the largest convenience store and gasoline station chains in the United States.

Henry Martyn Leland February 16, — March 26, was an American machinist, inventor, engineer and automotive entrepreneur. Heraeus is a German technology group with a focus on precious and special metals, medical technology, quartz glass, sensors and specialty light sources. Hero Motocorp Ltd. Hewland is a British engineering company, founded in by Mike Hewland, which specialises in racing-car gearboxes.

Hexcel Corporation is a public company that produces advanced composite materials engineering. Hino Motors, Ltd. Hispano-Argentina was an Argentinian automotive and engineering company that manufactured vehicles, aircraft, machinery, weaponry and parts for public works. The history of Connecticut Industry is a major part of the history of Connecticut. This article is about the history of Coventry, a city in the West Midlands, England.

Ford Motor Company is an American automaker and the world's fifth largest automaker based on worldwide vehicle sales. The history of General Motors GM , one of the world's largest car and truck manufacturers, reaches back more than a century and involves a vast scope of industrial activity around the world, mostly focused on motorized transportation and the engineering and manufacturing that make it possible.

The recorded history of Grand Rapids in the U. Software can be defined as programmed instructions stored in the memory of stored-program digital computers for execution by the processor. The early history of the automobile can be divided into a number of eras, based on the prevalent means of propulsion. The area straddles the historic border between the counties of Warwickshire Birmingham and Coventry , Staffordshire the north , Worcestershire the south.

Holden, formally known as General Motors Holden, is an Australian automobile importer and a former automobile manufacturer with its headquarters in Port Melbourne, Victoria. The Holden is a mid-size sedan which was produced by the Australian automaker Holden between November and October The Honda brand arrived in Australia in the mid s, when independent firms imported Honda motorcycles.

Honda of the UK Manufacturing Ltd. Honeywell Turbo Technologies, formerly Garrett Engine Boosting Systems, is an American company primarily involved in engineering, development and manufacturing of turbochargers and related forced induction systems. Hoosier Racing Tire is an American tire manufacturer primarily specializing in the production of tires for competition use. Horizon Fuel Cell Technologies is a company founded in in Singapore, serving a diverse range of industries with various fuel cell electric energy solutions and products.

Horton Holding is an American automotive manufacturing corporation from Saint Paul, Minnesota that produces suspension products, fans and fan drives since Hot metal gas forming HMGF is a method of die forming in which a metal tube is heated to a pliable state, near to but below its melting point, then pressurized internally by a gas in order to form the tube outward into the shape defined by an enclosing die cavity. Hot Wheels is a brand of , , and scale die-cast toy cars introduced by American toy maker Mattel in How Do They Do It?

Howard Hughes Engineering Pty Ltd is an Australian aircraft manufacturer, boat and automobile builder and general engineering company based in Ballina, New South Wales. Howes Lubricator is a manufacturer of oils, fuel additives and multi purpose lubricant. Human subject research is systematic, scientific investigation that can be either interventional a "trial" or observational no "test article" and involves human beings as research subjects. Humber Limited was a British manufacturer of bicycles, motorcycles and motor vehicles incorporated and listed on the stock exchange in Hupmobile was an automobile built from through by the Hupp Motor Car Company.

Hurst Performance, Inc. Hutchinson Group is a manufacturer with its headquarters located in Paris, France. A hybrid electric vehicle HEV is a type of hybrid vehicle that combines a conventional internal combustion engine ICE system with an electric propulsion system hybrid vehicle drivetrain. Hybrid vehicle drivetrains transmit power to the driving wheels for hybrid vehicles.

Hyderabad Allwyn Limited, established in , was an Hyderabad State government engineering and white goods manufacturing company involved in manufacture of automobiles, trucks, scooters, bus coach building, refrigerators and wrist watches. A hypereutectic piston is an internal combustion engine piston cast using a hypereutectic alloy—that is, a metallic alloy which has a composition beyond the eutectic point. Hyslop and Ronald was a Canadian brass era steam fire engine manufacturer, based in Chatham, Ontario.

Hyundai Glovis Co. Hyundai IHL Co. Hyundai Steel Co. A Institute acronym, Institute of Development in Automotive Engineering is an automobile design and engineering company in Turin, Italy, founded in Ideal Jawa India Ltd was an Indian motorcycle company based in Mysore which sold licensed Jawa motorcycles beginning in under the brand name Jawa and from as Yezdi. IMCO Carbide Tool is an American manufacturing company that researches, designs and manufactures high-performance cutting tools for a variety of applications in the aerospace, automotive, medical, petrochemical, and manufacturing industries.

Campbell in , who also ran the Jackson Carriage Company. In-car entertainment ICE , or in-vehicle infotainment IVI , is a collection of hardware and software in automobiles that provides audio or video entertainment. Inchcape plc is a multinational automotive distribution, retail and services company headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

Indonesia or; Indonesian , officially the Republic of Indonesia Republik Indonesia , is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania. Induction sealing is the process of bonding thermoplastic materials by induction heating. Inductive charging also known as wireless charging or cordless charging uses an electromagnetic field to transfer energy between two objects through electromagnetic induction.

Industrial and Production Engineering IPE is an interdisciplinary engineering discipline that includes manufacturing technology, engineering sciences, management science, and optimization of complex processes, systems, or organizations.

Industrial Development Group - IDG is the fruit of the Egyptian Government recent reforms that have been directed towards facilitating investment procedures, attracting more local, Arab and foreign enterprises to Egypt. The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about to sometime between and Industry classification or industry taxonomy is a type of economic taxonomy that organizes companies into industrial groupings based on similar production processes, similar products, or similar behavior in financial markets.

INFICON Instruments For Intelligent Control is headquartered in Bad Ragaz Switzerland and is engaged in the development, manufacture and supply of instruments, sensor technology and process control software for the semiconductor and vacuum-coating industries.

Infineon Technologies AG is a German semiconductor manufacturer founded on 1 April , when the semiconductor operations of the parent company Siemens AG were spun off to form a separate legal entity. Infomedia Ltd is a leading global provider of SaaS solutions to the parts and service sector of the automotive industry.

Innocenti was an Italian machinery works originally established by Ferdinando Innocenti in Innovative Products of America IPA is a family-owned and operated original equipment manufacturing and distributing company based out of Woodstock, New York. Intermeccanica formally Construzione Automobili Intermeccanica is an automobile manufacturer, founded in Torino, Italy, in by Frank Reisner.

The International Engine of the Year is an annual competition for automotive industry internal combustion engines, judged by a panel of automobile journalists from around the world. The International Executive Resources Group IERG is a non-profit professional association for corporate executive-level professionals working in diverse industries whose careers include broad experience in the global arena.

The International Harvester Company abbreviated first IHC and later IH was a United States manufacturer of agricultural machinery, construction equipment, trucks, and household and commercial products. IKCO was founded in and it produced , passenger cars in Iso was an automobile and motorcycle maker, the product of Iso Autoveicoli S. A of Italy. ISO is an ISO standard for the computer-interpretable representation and exchange of product manufacturing information.

ISO is a family of standards related to environmental management that exists to help organizations a minimize how their operations processes, etc. Isu Group is a large South Korean chaebol conglomerate , with subsidiaries in the chemical, industry, financial, petroleum and automotive fields. The Isuzu Gemini was a subcompact car later a compact car that was produced by the Japanese automaker Isuzu from to Itala was a car manufacturer based in Turin, Italy from , started by Matteo Ceirano and five partners in Italian design refers to all forms of design in Italy, including interior design, urban design, fashion design and architectural design.

Major Ivan Hirst 1 March — 10 March , was a British Army officer and engineer who was instrumental in reviving Volkswagen from a single factory in Wolfsburg, Germany, into a major postwar automotive manufacturer. The İzmir International Fair is the oldest tradeshow in Turkey, considered the cradle of Turkey's fairs and expositions industry, and is also notable for hosting a series of simultaneous festival activities.

Jacques A. Jaguar is the luxury vehicle brand of Jaguar Land Rover, a British multinational car manufacturer with its headquarters in Whitley, Coventry, England and owned by the Indian company Tata Motors since The Jaguar F-Type is a two-door, two-seater sports car, based on a shortened platform of the XK convertible, manufactured by British car manufacturer Jaguar Land Rover under their Jaguar marque from James Collyer Keck June 11, — August 9, was an American physicist and engineer recognized for his work on the Manhattan Project and for developing new methods for combustion engine modeling and high temperature flows.

James M. Rubenstein born is an American geographer and Professor of Geography at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, known for his work on human geography and specifically on the US automotive industry. James R. Verrier born is the chief executive officer at automotive industry component supplier BorgWarner.

Jayme Illien born September 8, is a global business executive, statesman, activist, philanthropist, and prominent United Nations special advisor. JCT Ltd is a privately owned franchise motor firm that operates primarily in the north of England, with 50 dealerships between Boston and Newcastle. The Jeep CJ models are both a series and a range of small, open-bodied off-road vehicles and compact pickup trucks, built and sold by several successive incarnations of the Jeep automobile marque from to The Jeep Wagoneer is the first luxury 4x4, sold and produced for Jeep by several automakers from to Jeffrey R.

Caponigro is an American public relations executive, actor, entrepreneur, and former journalist. Jetronic is a trade name of a fuel injection technology for automotive petrol engines, developed and marketed by Robert Bosch GmbH from the s onwards. Jiangxi Isuzu Motors Co. Jiffy Lube is an American brand of automotive oil change specialty shops founded in Utah, United States, in Jimmy Work born , Akron, Ohio was an American country musician best known for the country standard "Making Believe".

Jobbie Nooner is the largest boat party in the Midwest and one of the largest boat parties in America. Joel Kovel — was an American scholar and author, known as the founder of "Eco-socialism. John David Dingell Jr. John William Melvin May 15, — July 17, was a research engineer in the field of the biomechanics of automobile crashes and a safety consultant in the field of automotive racing safety.

John North Willys October 25, — August 26, was an American automotive pioneer and statesman. Zhejiang Jonway Automobile Co. Jeffery Company of Kenosha, Wisconsin. Josh Voorhees is an American political journalist and senior writer for Slate, and the former editor of its news blog Slatest.

Josipa Petrunic is a Canadian advocate for low- and zero emission transportation technology. Jung-A Hydraulic Co. Jurong Island is an artificial island located to the southwest of the main island of Singapore, off Jurong Industrial Estate. JustAnswer also known as Pearl.

JPMA is a national trade organization that represents the juvenile industry defined as from prenatal to preschool. The Juzan was a French automobile manufactured only in ; it was a light motorised quadricycle along De Dion lines. Kaluga p is a city and the administrative center of Kaluga Oblast, Russia, located on the Oka River southwest of Moscow.

Kandi Technologies Group, Inc. The Kansas City Motor Car Company was a manufacturer of automobiles in the Shefield neighborhood in Northeast Kansas City, Missouri from to and was one of the twenty now defunct automakers operating out of Kansas City in the early 20th century.

Kantar is the Data Investment Management division of WPP, and one of the world's largest insight, information and consultancy groups. Karl Probst 20 October — 25 August was an American freelance engineer and automotive pioneer, credited with the design of the first prototype of the World War II "jeep" in The was founded December 19, and currently maintains its head office in Shinjuku Ward, Tokyo, Japan.

Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. The Kessler Motor Company was a short-lived American manufacturer of aircraft engines and automobiles. Kettering University formerly General Motors Institute of Technology is a private cooperative education and experiential learning-based university in Flint, Michigan, offering bachelor's and master's degrees in STEM Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics and business fields.

In mechanical engineering, a key is a machine element used to connect a rotating machine element to a shaft. The "Knowledge Quarter" in Liverpool, England is a modern term in business given to the vicinity of Liverpool City Centre that focuses heavily on the education, knowledge and research sectors.

Kraco Enterprises, LLC, is primarily a fabricated rubber products manufacturing company. KUKA is a German manufacturer of industrial robots and solutions for factory automation. Kumho Asiana Group is a large South Korean Chaebol conglomerate , with subsidiaries in the automotive, industry, leisure, logistic, chemical and airline fields. Kumho Tire Co. Keyang Electric Co, Ltd. Lake freighters, or lakers, are bulk carrier vessels that ply the Great Lakes of North America.

A laminated fabric is a two or more layer construction with a polymer film bonded to a fabric. The Lancia Thema Type is an executive car produced by the Italian automaker Lancia between and , and one of four cars to share the Type Four platform alongside the Alfa Romeo , Fiat Croma and Saab Land Rover is a car brand that specialises in four-wheel-drive vehicles, owned by British multinational car manufacturer Jaguar Land Rover, which has been owned by India's Tata Motors since Landi Renzo S.

Landini SpA, headquartered in Fabbrico, Italy, was founded by Giovanni Landini in to produce agricultural equipment. The scanning laser vibrometer or scanning laser Doppler vibrometer, introduced in the s, is an instrument for rapid non-contact measurement and imaging of vibration. Laverda is a manufacturer of combine harvesters and hay equipment, based in Breganze, Italy. The Lawil S. Leadec provides technical services for the automotive and manufacturing industries.

A leaf spring is a simple form of spring commonly used for the suspension in wheeled vehicles. Leece-Neville is a global manufacturer and supplier of alternators, starters, electrical equipment and services to the transportation, industrial, military, marine, agricultural and construction industries.

Legacy Classic Trucks is a manufacturer of Aftermarket replica vehicles, Accessories, and conversion kits. Legacy costs is a term formed by analogy with the computer industry's legacy systems. The Lexus F marque represents the high-performance division of cars produced by Lexus. Liberty Electric Cars Ltd. Lifan Industry Group Co. Lifan Group or Lifan, reuters. A lift table bellows also known as lift table skirting is a safety device that forms a protective barrier between the lift table operator and the equipment's moving parts.

The Lightning Car Company is a British sports car developer, originally based in Fulham and Peterborough, the company relocated to Coventry and is focused on the development and production of high performance electric sports cars.

Lightweighting is a concept in the auto industry about building cars and trucks that are less heavy as a way to achieve better fuel efficiency and handling. Liquid fuels are combustible or energy-generating molecules that can be harnessed to create mechanical energy, usually producing kinetic energy; they also must take the shape of their container.

Liquidity Services is an American corporation, which works with corporate and government agencies to manage and sell their surplus assets and excess inventory. Lisle Corporation is a United States manufacturer of auto mechanic's specialty tools.

This is a list of assets owned by the multinational holding company Berkshire Hathaway, including private subsidiaries and large common stock holdings, as well as Berkshire's sizeable cash position. Automobiles superlatives include attributes such as the smallest, largest, fastest, lightest, best-selling, and so on. Best selling automobiles are those passenger cars and light trucks which, since the introduction of the Benz Patent Motorwagen in , can lay claim to being the highest selling vehicles in the markets they compete in.

This is a list of companies founded by University of California, Berkeley alumni, including attendees who enrolled in degree-programs at Berkeley but did not eventually graduate. This is a list of countries by motor vehicle production based on Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles OICA and other data from and earlier.

This article is a list of countries by the number of road motor vehicles per 1, inhabitants. The spark-ignition petrol engines listed below were formerly used by various marques of automobiles and commercial vehicles of the German automotive concern, Volkswagen Group,ETKA official factory data and also in Volkswagen Industrial Motor applications, but are now discontinued. A full list of models produced by Italian automobile manufacturer Fiat since This list of Hungarians by net worth article consists ranks that claims to be the list of the richest Hungarians according to the individual's net worth.

A list of computer central processor instruction sets: By alphabetical order by its manufacturer. From the beginning of organised motor sport events, in the early s, until the late s, before commercial sponsorship liveries came into common use, vehicles competing in Formula One, sports car racing, touring car racing and other international auto racing competitions customarily painted their cars in standardised racing colours that indicated the nation of origin of the car or driver.

This is a list of the current owners of Italian football clubs, as well as in some cases their estimated net worth and source of wealth. This article lists the largest companies in China in terms of their revenue, net profit and total assets, according to the American business magazines Fortune and Forbes. This page lists the largest annual and quarterly earnings and losses in corporate history.

The following is a list of the largest European manufacturing companies, ordered by revenue in billions of US Dollars. This is a list of the largest companies from the Nordic countries, as determined by different factors. This is a list of largest private companies in the United Kingdom according to sales.

Many scientific, military, medical and commercial laser applications have been developed since the invention of the laser in The National Historic Landmarks in Michigan represent Michigan's history from pre-colonial days through World War II, and encompasses several landmarks detailing the state's automotive, maritime and mining industries.

This list of North American Volkswagen engines details internal combustion engines found in the Volkswagen Passenger Cars and Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles marques, as sold in the North American markets. This is a list of notable past and present people from the City of Frankston in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Thomas Alva Edison was widely known as the America's most prolific inventor, even after his death in The following is a list of publicly traded companies having the greatest market capitalization. This list of recipients of the Silver Buffalo Award includes people who have been awarded the highest commendation of the Boy Scouts of America.

Engines used by French automaker Renault SA have historically been referenced in technical specifications along two distinct systems. The road network in Windsor, Ontario is a grid system with elongated blocks, generally aligned with the Detroit River, with East-West roads running parallel to it, and North-South streets running perpendicular 90 Degrees to it. The following list consists of automotive models produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana from to and Studebaker Canada Ltd.

This list of Voith transmissions details those automotive industry commercial vehicle transmissions made by German Voith AG engineering company. This list of Volkswagen Group engines includes internal combustion engine articles and related technologies produced by the German automotive concern, Volkswagen Group.

This list of Volkswagen Group factories details the current and former manufacturing facilities operated by the automotive concern Volkswagen Group, and its subsidiaries. The German automotive concern, Volkswagen Group has, since the s, developed a series of shared automobile platforms for their motor vehicles. Litex Motors is an automobile manufacturing company based in Sofia, Bulgaria and the official partner of Great Wall Motors in Bulgaria.

Littelfuse, Inc is a multinational electronic manufacturing company based in Chicago, Illinois. Lloyd Cars Ltd was a British motor manufacturer, founded by Roland Lloyd —65 , son of a garage owner, and based in Patrick Street, Grimsby, Lincolnshire, England between and The Locomobile Company of America was a pioneering American automobile manufacturer founded in Logistics is generally the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation.

Lone Star College—North Harris formerly North Harris College is a public community college, located in unincorporated Harris County, Texas, United States, adjacent to Houston and offering Associate's degrees and program certifications in over fields of study. Long block is an automotive term for an engine sub-assembly that consists of the assembled block, crankshaft, cylinder head, camshaft usually , and valve train. Lotus Cars is a British automotive company that manufactures sports cars and racing cars in its headquarters in Hethel, United Kingdom.

Lucas Industries plc was a Birmingham-based British manufacturer of motor industry and aerospace industry components. Lucas Oil Products, Inc. Luxgen Motor Co. Luxoft is an international custom software development company with more than 13, employees, 41 offices in 20 countries in North America, Western and Eastern Europe, Asia Pacific, and South Africa.

Lynn G. Tilton born April 22, is an American businesswoman and collateralized loan obligation CLO creator, owner and manager. Melvin Russell Ballard Jr. The machine industry or machinery industry is a subsector of the industry, that produces and maintains machines for consumers, the industry, and most other companies in the economy. Machine to machine refers to direct communication between devices using any communications channel, including wired and wireless. To date, two methods have been used to make a personal computer, not offered by Apple, but able to run the Mac operating system: either create a Macintosh Conversion or build a Macintosh clone.

Mack Trucks, Inc. Magneti Marelli S. Magnetic pulse welding MPW is a solid state welding process that uses magnetic forces to weld two workpieces together. Last post: Dec 20, , am Re: The beginners' guide Last post: Feb 10, , am axdvwmmc by Direct Lender Loans. Welcome to forex forum binary options trade.

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Florian Church Hamtramck, Michigan , St. Louis Motor Company , St. Dabney , William S. Knudsen , William Soeryadjaya , Williamson v. Mazda Motor of America, Inc. AC Cars Ltd. Accelrys is a software company headquartered in the United States, with representation in Europe and Asia.

Access America Transport was a third-party logistics provider of transportation and logistics services. An account manager is a person who works for a company and is responsible for the management of sales and relationships with particular customers. Acme Mills Company is a privately held textiles conversion and finishing company based in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. Acrylic rubber, known by the chemical name alkyl acrylate copolymer ACM or the tradename HyTemp, is a type of rubber that has outstanding resistance to hot oil and oxidation.

Action directe AD was a French far-left terrorist group which committed a series of assassinations and violent attacks in France between and Active Space Technologies is a Portuguese company, with main offices in Portugal, headquartered in Coimbra, which offers products and services in the fields of thermo-mechanical engineering thermal and structural analysis, design, manufacturing, and testing , electronics engineering embedded systems, digital control , as well as management support services for technology transfer and development projects project management, systems engineering, project coordination.

Acuant is an identity verification, document authentication and fraud prevention technology services provider headquartered in Los Angeles, with engineering and development centers in New Hampshire and Israel. Adam Motor Company, Ltd. Adcole Corporation is a Massachusetts-based manufacturer of precision testing and measuring instruments. Adient plc is an automotive parts manufacturer focused on automotive seating with global operations based in Plymouth, Michigan.

Pfeiffer Vacuum SAS former adixen Vacuum Products is a French company that manufactures vacuum pumps, leak detectors and plasma sensors. Adval Tech Holding is a Swiss Stock Company1 currently trading as active in the machinery industry for high-volume components manufactured in metal and plastic.

Advance Auto Parts is a retailer of automotive parts and accessories in the United States headquartered in Roanoke, Virginia. Advanced product quality planning or APQP is a framework of procedures and techniques used to develop products in industry, particularly the automotive industry. An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing, building, testing, selling, and maintaining aircraft, aircraft parts, missiles, rockets, or spacecraft.

Aerotherm Group is a British automotive and aerospace capital equipment manufacturer company headquartered in Tunstall, Staffordshire, United Kingdom. The Affinia Group, a motor industry company, was formed in and specialized in the design, manufacture and replacement of parts for on and off-road vehicles, specifically filtration and chassis components.

The automotive aftermarket is the secondary market of the automotive industry, concerned with the manufacturing, remanufacturing, distribution, retailing, and installation of all vehicle parts, chemicals, equipment, and accessories, after the sale of the automobile by the original equipment manufacturer OEM to the consumer.

An ageing suit also spelt as aging suit is a suit pioneered by the automotive industry in simulating the constraints of older aged drivers. Agrale, previously called AGRISA, is a Brazilian manufacturer of military vehicles, commercial vehicles, engines and agricultural tractors. Agricola G. Airflow Sciences Corporation ASC is an engineering consulting company based in Livonia, Michigan that specializes in the solution of industrial fluid flow problems.

The Airscoot was a quite unusual car made by the Wichita, Kansas-based company Aircraft Products in to fit the need for a small car that could commute to and from airports then be folded up and put aboard private aircraft. Albion Automotive of Scotstoun, Glasgow is a former Scottish automobile and commercial vehicle manufacturer.

Alcantara is a covering microfibre material manufactured and marketed by Alcantara S. It is primarily used in the design, fashion, accessories, consumer electronics, automotive and marine industries. Alex Hirschi known as Supercar Blondie born September 21, is an Australian social media celebrity, presenter, and vlogger. Alexej "Axi" Stachowitsch Stockholm October 10, — April 1, Limburg an der Lahn was an Austrian-Russian author, pedagogue, songwriter, technician, one of the most important figures of post-war Scouting and Wandervogel in Germany and Austria, and founder and first principal of the Werkschulheim Felbertal.

Alfa S. Alfa Romeo Automobiles S. Alfdex AB is a Swedish company that develops and produces separators for cleaning of crankcase gases in diesel truck engines. Alfred Pritchard Sloan Jr. May 23, —February 17, was an American business executive in the automotive industry.

The Allgaier Group is a systems supplier for the international automotive industry, including production of body panel dies as well as forming technology involving the production of pressed components and ready-to-fit components. The Auto Alliance is a trade group of automobile manufacturers that operate in the United States.

An Almen round is a thin round disk used to quantify the intensity of a shot peening process. Alset Global GmbH is an Austrian technology and engineering company based in Graz that is specialised in hydrogen-based clean mobility solutions. Altarea SCA, trading as Altarea Cogedim, is a French company dedicated to both the development and investment in real estate, focusing especially on in construction, extension and development of shopping centers, as well as property development.

AAM , headquartered in Detroit, Michigan, is a manufacturer of automobile driveline and drivetrain components and systems. The American Highway Users Alliance informally Highway Users, previously Highway Users Federation, National Highway Users Conference , is a non-profit advocacy group representing many businesses in the automotive and road construction sector. The American Motor Car Company was a short-lived company in the automotive industry founded in , lasting until AmeriPride Services is a uniform rental and linen supply company in North America.

Amilcar Italiana manufactured some French Amilcar automobile models in Italy from to under licence granted in to Compagnia Generale Automobili S. Analyst relations is a corporate strategy, corporate communications and marketing activity in which corporations communicate with ICT industry analysts also known as research analysts who work for independent research and consulting firms such as the leading four.

Andrew Ross Sorkin born February 19, is an American journalist and author. Anhui Ankai Automobile Co. Ann Arbor is a city in the U. Anomatic Corporation manufactures aluminum products, and is a manufacturer of large-quantity aluminum parts for cosmetic companies' packaging including Revlon, Maybelline, Estee Lauder and Mary Kay. Anteros Coachworks Inc. An antifreeze is an additive which lowers the freezing point of a water-based liquid and increases its boiling point.

Artificial intelligence, defined as intelligence exhibited by machines, has many applications in today's society. Aptera Motors was an American startup company seeking to manufacture high-efficiency road vehicles. Arc welding is a process that is used to join metal to metal by using electricity to create enough heat to melt metal, and the melted metals when cool result in a binding of the metals.

Arcelor S. Arcimoto is an electric vehicle company from Eugene, Oregon developing the SRK, a tandem two-seat, three-wheeled electric vehicle. Ariel Motor Company Ltd is a low-volume performance motor vehicle manufacturing company in Crewkerne, in Somerset, England. Arlington is a principal city in the U. Arola SARL was a small manufacturing company based in Lyon-Corbas, France, which manufactured a range of microcars, designed to be driven without a licence.

Arteris, Inc. Arthur Radebaugh was a futurist, illustrator, airbrush artist, and industrial designer. Artillerie-Inrichtingen was a Dutch state-owned artillery, small arms, and munitions company which also produced machine tools and was founded in in Delft, Netherlands. Ashot Ashkelon Industries Ltd is an Israeli manufacturer of build to print products such as: gears, transmissions and gearboxes to the Aerospace, Military, and Automotive industries.

Asian American activism refers broadly to political movements and activities that Asian Americans have participated in. An assembly line is a manufacturing process often called a progressive assembly in which parts usually interchangeable parts are added as the semi-finished assembly moves from workstation to workstation where the parts are added in sequence until the final assembly is produced.

Associated Equipment Company AEC was a British vehicle manufacturer that built buses, motorcoaches and lorries from until Selden and the Electric Vehicle Company. Atalanta Motors is a British car company created in by Martyn Corfield to relaunch the dormant s Atalanta which stopped production due to the war after a production run of only 21 cars. Atmel Corporation is an American-based designer and manufacturer of semiconductors, founded in Auburn was a brand name of American automobiles produced from through Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer that designs, engineers, produces, markets and distributes luxury vehicles.

The Audi A6 is an executive car made by the German automaker Audi, now in its fifth generation. The Audi Quattro is a road and rally car, produced by the German automobile manufacturer Audi, part of the Volkswagen Group. The Audi Senna Ltda. Aurelio Peccei 4 July in Turin, Piedmont — 14 March , was an Italian industrialist and philanthropist, best known as co-founder with Alexander King and first president of the Club of Rome, an organisation which attracted considerable public attention in with its report, The Limits to Growth.

The Austin was a brass era American automobile manufactured in Grand Rapids, Michigan from to The Australian Automotive Aftermarket Association AAAA is an automotive industry association that represents the automotive aftermarket parts and accessories industry and companies that are involved in manufacturing, re-manufacturing, wholesaling, distributing and retailing of vehicle parts, tools, equipment, accessories and services.

Australian Motor Industries AMI was an automobile assembly firm that was significant in the early history of the automotive industry in Australia. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of and came into existence on 30 March An auto show, also known as a motor show or car show, is a public exhibition of current automobile models, debuts, concept cars, or out-of-production classics.

Auto Union AG, Chemnitz, was an amalgamation of four German automobile manufacturers, founded in and established in in Chemnitz, Saxony, during the Great Depression. Autobianchi literally translated "Bianchicar" or "Bianchimobile" was an Italian automobile manufacturer, created jointly by Bianchi, Pirelli and Fiat in The Autobianchi A is a supermini produced by the Italian automaker Autobianchi.

AutoCanada is one of Canada's largest multi-location and first publicly traded franchise automobile dealership group. An automatic lathe is a lathe usually a metalworking lathe whose actions are controlled automatically. Automation is a video game from Camshaft Software for Microsoft Windows that allows the player to create and run a virtual car company and design vehicles to sell. An automation integrator is a systems integrator—a company or individual—who makes different versions of automation hardware and software work together, generally combining several subsystems to work together as one large system.

Automobile Craiova S. Automobile Dacia S. An automobile magazine is a magazine with news and reports on cars and the automobile industry. The Automobile Manufacturers Association was a trade group of automobile manufacturers which operated under various names in the United States from to Automobiles Darracq France was a manufacturer of motor vehicles and aero engines in Suresnes, near Paris.

Automotive engineering, along with aerospace engineering and marine engineering, is a branch of vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of motorcycles, automobiles and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems. Hemming is a technology used in the automotive industry to join inner and outer closure panels together hoods, doors, tailgates, etc.

Automotive Holdings Group Limited is an Australian company specialising in automotive retail and logistics. Automotive Industries, Ltd. This article provides an overview of the automotive industry in countries around the world. The automotive industry crisis of — was a part of a global financial downturn. The automotive industry in Canada consists primarily of assembly plants of foreign automakers, most with headquarters in the United States or Japan, along with hundreds of manufacturers of automotive parts and systems.

Chennai is nicknamed the "Detroit of India" or the "Detroit of Asia" due to the presence of major automobile manufacturing units and allied industries around the city. The automotive industry in Croatia employs about 10, people in over companies and generates profit of about. The automotive industry in Germany is one of the largest employers in the world, with a labor force of over , working in the industry. The automotive industry in Italy is a quite large employer in the country, it had over 2, firms and employed almost , people in The automotive industry in Japan is one of the most prominent and largest industries in the world.

The automotive industry in New Zealand supplies a market which has always had one of the world's highest car ownership ratios. South Africa is traditionally the leader in Africa of the automotive industry and now produces more than half a million automobiles annually of all types. The automotive industry in South Korea is the sixth-largest in the world measured by automobile unit production and the fifth-largest by automobile export volume.

The automotive industry in the United States began in the s and, as a result of the size of the domestic market and the use of mass production, rapidly evolved into the largest in the world. The automotive industry in Turkey plays an important role in the manufacturing sector of the Turkish economy. Automotive industry in Vietnam is a fast growing sector, mainly reliant on domestic sales.

Automotive News is a weekly print newspaper written for the automotive industry, primarily individuals associated with automobile manufacturers and suppliers. Automotive Products, commonly abbreviated to AP, was an automotive industry components company set up in by Edward Boughton, Willie Emmott and Denis Brock, to import and sell American-made components to service the fleet of ex-military trucks left behind in Europe after World War I.

In , they obtained a licence for the manufacture and sale of the Lockheed Hydraulic Braking System for the British Isles and Continental Europe, and in the following year they acquired a controlling interest in Zephyr Carburetors Limited which had premises in Clemens Street, Leamington Spa. Automotive Research Association of India ARAI is co-operative industrial research association by the automotive industry with the Ministry of Industries, Government Of India The objectives of the Association are Research and Development in automotive engineering for industry, product design and development, evaluation of automotive equipment and ancillaries, standardisation, technical information services, execution of advanced courses on the application of modern technology and conduct of specific tests.

The National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence ASE is a professional certification group that certifies professionals and shops in the automotive repair and service industry in the United States and parts of Canada. Automotive software refers to any software, or firmware or embedded software , related to automotive industry specific products or services. Autonomous Solutions, Inc. According to SimilarWeb, autotrader. AutoWeb is an automotive media and marketing services company based in Irvine, California.

Autozeitung or Auto Zeitung German: "Automobile Newspaper" is a German-language biweekly automobile enthusiast magazine. The Avery Company, founded by Robert Hanneman Avery, was an American farm tractor manufacturer famed for its undermounted engine which resembled a railroad engine more than a conventional farm steam engine. Avtokam was a Russian association of factories engaged in production of cars of mark Avtokam.

Avtomanija is the leading Slovene automobile internet portal and magazine Axon Automotive is a British car manufacturer and car components manufacturer based in Northampton, Northamptonshire. İzmit, known as Nicomedia in antiquity, is a city in Turkey, the administrative center of the Kocaeli Province as well as the Metropolitan Municipality.

The Babcock Electric Carriage Company was an early 20th-century United States automobile company, making electric vehicles under the Babcock brand from through Bajaj Auto Limited is a global two-wheeler and three-wheeler Indian manufacturing company. Ballinascarty, also known as Ballinascarthy, is a village in West Cork, Ireland.

Bardahl is a brand of petroleum oil additives, lubricants and gasoline additives for motor vehicles and internal combustion engines made by Bardahl Manufacturing Corporation in Seattle, Washington. Barkas was the East German manufacturer of small delivery vans and minibuses named the B Basalt fiber is a material made from extremely fine fibers of basalt, which is composed of the minerals plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine. Beijing Automobile Works Co.

Beaver Motorcoach Corporation also known as Beaver Coach is a defunct American motor coach manufacturing company that was based in Oregon. Bedford Vehicles, usually shortened to just Bedford, was a brand of vehicle produced by Vauxhall Motors, which was ultimately owned by General Motors GM. Beijing Hyundai Motor Co. Bell Brothers was a diversified company with interests in the aggregates, automotive, civil engineering, heavy equipment, mining engineering and transport industries. Bellasi is a Swiss-Italian motorsport company specialized in manufacturing composite parts for racing cars.

Belle Tire is an American tire, wheel and automotive service retailer headquartered in Allen Park, Michigan. Bendigo TAFE is a regional provider of vocational education, training and assessment services, located in northern and central Victoria, Australia. Berkshire Hathaway Inc. Bioswales are landscape elements designed to concentrate or remove debris and pollution out of surface runoff water. Bizzarrini S.

Blinco Systems Inc. Bluegiga Technologies Ltd. Bob Hall is a former American motoring journalist best known for his work as an automotive product planner. Robert White, April 28, — February 19, was a prominent leader in the Canadian trade union and labour movement who was the founding president of the Canadian Auto Workers now Unifor after leading its separation from its American parent, the United Auto Workers, and then president of the Canadian Labour Congress.

Body-in-blue is a term used in the automotive industry for the set of body parts of a car, comprising the windows and the sheet metal components that are welded or glued together before other areas of the car such as the trim, the engine, the drivetrain, etc. Bodycote plc is a supplier of heat treatments, metal joining, hot isostatic pressing and coatings services.

Borgward — Borgward Group AG is a German-based international automobile brand, which carries the identity of former German brand Borgward. BorgWarner Inc. Ruote Borrani S. Bourns, Inc. Vibratory bowl feeders are common devices used to feed individual component parts for assembly on industrial production lines. Bowler Manufacturing is the manufacturer of off-road racing vehicles based on the Land Rover Defender and Range Rover chassis.

BP plc stylised as bp , formerly British Petroleum, is a British multinational oil and gas company headquartered in London, England. Bradley Automotive is an American automotive company that built and sold kits and components for kit cars as well as completed vehicles. Braunschweig Low German: Brunswiek , also called Brunswick in English, is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, north of the Harz mountains at the farthest navigable point of the Oker river which connects it to the North Sea via the Aller and Weser rivers.

Brembo S. Bristol Cars is a dormant manufacturer of hand-built luxury cars headquartered at Mychett Place, Surrey, England. The British Road Federation was a business organisation representing stakeholders of the road industry in the United Kingdom. Broadspeed Engineering Ltd was a British automobile tuning and engineering company that operated from Sparkbrook, Birmingham, England, principally during the s and s.

Louis, Missouri Brushed or dull polished metal is metal with a unidirectional satin finish. Automobiles Ettore Bugatti was a French car manufacturer of high-performance automobiles, founded in in the then German city of Molsheim, Alsace by Italian-born Ettore Bugatti. Bursa is a large city in Turkey, located in northwestern Anatolia, within the Marmara Region.

A bus archaically also omnibus, multibus, motorbus, autobus is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Bus manufacturing, a sector of the automotive industry, manufactures buses and coaches. Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products goods and services.

A business magnate formally industrialist refers to an entrepreneur of great influence, importance, or standing in a particular enterprise or field of business. Business marketing is a marketing practice of individuals or organizations including commercial businesses, governments and institutions. BYD Auto Co. Byteflight is an automotive databus created by BMW and partners Motorola, Elmos Semiconductor and Infineon to address the need for a modernized safety-critical, fault tolerant means of electronic communication between automotive components.

Caltex Woolworths is an Australian chain of petrol station, operated by Caltex Australia and Woolworths Limited in a joint venture. Canadian Electric Vehicles Ltd. Candy apple red occasionally known as apple-candy red is the name code used by manufacturing companies to define a shade of red similar to the red sugar coating on candied apples. Caparo Vehicle Technologies CVT , formerly known as Freestream, is a British company that provides advanced technology development, materials engineering, and design services to automotive, motorsport and aerospace markets.

Car Australia was an Australian automotive magazine published monthly until A car club or automotive enthusiast community is a group of people who share a common interest in motor vehicles. A car dealership or vehicle local distribution is a business that sells new or used cars at the retail level, based on a dealership contract with an automaker or its sales subsidiary. A car door is a type of door, typically hinged, but sometimes attached by other mechanisms such as tracks, in front of an opening which is used for entering and exiting a vehicle.

Car Mechanic Simulator is a simulation video game depicting the work of an automotive mechanic. A car model or automobile model or model of car is the name used by a manufacturer to market a range of similar cars. A car platform is a shared set of common design, engineering, and production efforts, as well as major components over a number of outwardly distinct models and even types of cars, often from different, but related marques. A car turntable or driveway turntable is a rotating platform designed for use by a car; they can be motorized or manually rotated and are usually installed in a driveway or in a garage floor.

Carbon dioxide cleaning CO2 cleaning comprises a family of methods for parts cleaning and sterilization, using carbon dioxide in its various phases. Carbon fibers or carbon fibres alternatively CF, graphite fiber or graphite fibre are fibers about 5—10 micrometers in diameter and composed mostly of carbon atoms.

Carbon Motors Corporation was an American automotive corporation that developed a purpose-built police car. Carcraft was an independent group of used car hypermarkets established in in Rochdale, Greater Manchester, England, with eleven locations around the country. CarGurus is a Cambridge, Massachusetts-based automotive research and shopping website that assists users in comparing local listings for used and new cars, and contacting sellers.

Carisma Automotive is a UK-based automotive shop which specializes in customized interiors, paint, tyres, and other accessories, founded in Carl Louis "Charles" Breeden 10 February — 2 November was an English automotive industry engineer and entrepreneur and a first-class cricketer.

Carmor Integrated Vehicle Solutions previously known as Hatehof is an Israeli company that manufactures tankers, aircraft refuelers, fire fighting trucks, armored vehicles and special purpose trailers. Carnation Auto is a multi-brand automotive sales and service company headquartered in Noida, India.

CarPrice Limited is an online used car broker and auctioneer headquartered in Moscow, Russia, with more than 50 offices in 23 large Russian cities. Carrozzeria Barbi is an Italian bus manufacturer, with headquarters in Mirandola, near Modena. Carrozzeria Marazzi is an Italian coachbuilding company founded in and is located in Caronno Pertusella, outside Milan. Carrozzeria Sports Cars was a niche carrozzeria in Modena, Italy, active in the s.

The Carrozzeria Viotti was an Italian coachbuilding company active between and From to , primarily North America and parts of Europe experienced the rise of the Roaring Twenties. CarsDirect is an American online automotive research portal and car buying service based in El Segundo, California that allows consumers to research, price, purchase, insure and finance a vehicle online. The Cartercar was an American automobile manufactured in in Jackson, Michigan, in in Detroit, and from to in Pontiac, Michigan.

Carzone is an Irish website for motor dealers and consumers located in Dublin, Ireland, and is owned by the Auto Trader Group. Paying cash for cars is part of the vehicle recycling process that dismantles derelict automobiles for spare parts or scrap metal. Castrol is a British global brand of industrial and automotive lubricants offering a wide range of oils, greases and similar products for most lubrication applications.

Catalytic chain transfer CCT is a process that can be incorporated into radical polymerization to obtain greater control over the resulting products. Category management is an approach to the organisation of purchasing within a business organisation. CEATSA, is an Argentine high technology testing company providing environmental testing services to the satellite, aeronautics, electronics, automotive, defense, and energy industries.

A cenosphere is a lightweight, inert, hollow sphere made largely of silica and alumina and filled with air or inert gas, typically produced as a byproduct of coal combustion at thermal power plants. The Center for Automotive Research CAR is a nonprofit research organization based in Ann Arbor, Michigan that conducts research, forecasts trends, develops new methodologies, and advises on public policy. Central Motor Co. Not to be confused with Century, a British motor company that produced cars until Century Motor Vehicle Company — was a manufacturer of electric and steam automobiles in Syracuse, New York.

Ceradyne, Incorporated is a wholly owned subsidiary of 3M based in the United States. Cerium III oxide, also known as cerium oxide, cerium trioxide, cerium sesquioxide, cerous oxide or dicerium trioxide, is an oxide of the rare-earth metal cerium. A chain conveyor is a type of conveyor system for moving material through production lines. Chang'an Automobile Group Co. Changchun is the capital and largest city of Jilin Province, and is also the core city of Northeast Asia.

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Никогда реализует double draw no bet betting расширяет

He added to his troubles when he attempted to cover the theft by staging a carjacking, which was captured on hotel video surveillance. In the fall, his legal woes escalated when he was jailed for violating the terms of his probation, which included random drug testing and prohibitions on alcohol use and gambling. Rubalcada, who drank heavily during two ESPN interviews, remains in jail awaiting a spot at a drug treatment facility.

After Rubalcada was arrested, one of Walters' attorneys visited the county prosecutor's office -- without prodding -- armed with records detailing how the gambling operation was set up legitimately through a limited liability corporation. The move surprised and impressed authorities, as did the fact that a former Vegas detective was overseeing the group's security arm.

They were better set up legally than your average business, let's put it that way. In the sports gambling world, where the house takes a 10 percent cut, bettors need to win Any additional wins represent pure profit -- and when hundreds of thousands of dollars are wagered on a single game, lots of it. Walters gets those extra 2 percentage points and sometimes much more. He has boasted that he has suffered only one losing season in 39 years, and past criminal investigations provide a snapshot of his success.

The raid against the Computer Group revealed that the syndicate won an eye-popping More recently, an unsuccessful money-laundering case in found that Walters was consistently winning as much as 58 percent a week, sources told ESPN.

This year, Walters says, he expects to break even. Another myth about professional gambling is that every big bet is made in Vegas. Placing bets outside Nevada is a legal gray area and, as a result, a subject on which those close to Walters refuse to shed much light. But multiple sources estimate that only a small fraction of Walters' bets are actually placed there. The remainder, they say, happen either at offshore gambling sites or, to a lesser extent, through a network of bookies, many of whom have had relationships with Walters for decades.

Sources say Walters' operation has become more active in offshore sportsbooks, in Europe and in the emerging Asian market. A raid on Walters' office found more than 40 telephones, from which authorities said more than 12, long-distance calls a month were placed to illegal bookmakers in the U. Walters was indicted three times for money laundering in connection with the investigation, but the charges were dropped before trial. Today, sources say, the headquarters of Walters' international operation is located outside the United States.

The last known location was in Panama, according to sources, after earlier offices were based in London, the Bahamas and Tijuana, Mexico. Mastronardo, who says he worked for Walters from to , calls his former boss a genius. But he also witnessed what he saw as a dark side -- Walters could be cunning and openly malicious, he says. Mastronardo, who has also dabbled as a bookie and worked in the Caribbean as an offshore sportsbook operator, says he and 20 or so underlings moved bets for Walters from Philadelphia before he moved to Las Vegas to work out of Walters' headquarters in exchange for a 25 percent cut of the winnings.

Holding court in his airy fifth-floor beach condo in Boca Raton, Florida, Mastronardo, 59, looks fit and tanned, like he just walked off the golf course. But any day now, he will settle into a federal prison for a nine-month stay, the price for pleading guilty last year to illegal gambling and racketeering charges in connection with his post-Walters operation. While many former associates fear speaking openly about Walters' business, Mastronardo says he has little to be afraid of.

Talking about his past work helps ease some of the pain and embarrassment he's caused his family after more than 15 arrests, he says, adding that he's sought counseling to overcome his shame. Mastronardo, an All-American wide receiver at Villanova and 10th-round pick of the Philadelphia Eagles in , says he first met Walters in the s while playing in a golf tournament for high-rolling gamblers hosted by Jack Binion, who owned a large casino in Vegas.

Nearly two decades later, he says, the connection paid off when Walters asked him to move games. One of Walters' major advantages, Mastronardo says, is his focus on smaller college games, which don't attract much action and thus often aren't researched as deeply by bookmakers. Billy's art was to keep that game close to 7 and bet as much as you can without the world finding out about it.

One memorable night, Mastronardo says, he was at dinner with Walters and his wife when Walters began asking about a basketball game. Now you can bet in foreign markets. Some he bets in the casino. Some he bets offshore. Some he bets in different markets. So he uses the market however he wants.

But the art was that he could bet a game for a lot of money and nobody would know about it. But there were reminders that Walters could also be ruthless. Federal agents stopped him before he could leave the bustling McCarran airport terminal and began pressing him to turn over the money, which they suspected was earned illegally. Mastronardo managed to get a message to Walters through Fats, a driver sent to the airport to pick him up.

The reply from Walters was matter-of-fact: "Tell John good luck. After several hours of questioning, agents accepted Mastronardo's defense that he was a professional gambler and allowed him to leave with the money. But the next morning, after Walters got his cash, he issued Mastronardo a warning: "He says, 'Johnny, you know the rules, right?

If I don't get the money, it means I didn't receive the money. It means you are on the hook. That is the way it is. Years later, when Mastronardo was operating an offshore sportsbook, he believes Walters planted a whale -- betting parlance for a high roller -- to hit his business.

But after about three weeks, the man was winning so often that Mastronardo shut down his account, suspecting Walters had smartened him up. But it is all fair in love and war," Mastronardo says, shaking his head. And he is very cunning. He is kind of like a boxer you don't like personally but you respect his skill. Tiger Woods in his prime. You don't like the person, but you like the golfer. For his part, Walters says he hasn't spoken with Mastronardo in 15 years.

I don't recall having any relationship with him. He was a gambler, bet on sports, good golfer and a very personable guy. Authorities suspected that Icahn had tipped off Walters about potential investments that would have affected the price of two stocks and that Walters had informed his friend Mickelson.

Mickelson has since been cleared on one of two inquiries, but the investigation remains open -- though no charges have been filed and authorities refuse to discuss the case. If Walters is never prosecuted, the investigation would join a long list of occasions on which authorities have tried and failed to bring him down. Many politicians, investigators and prosecutors asked that their name not be used in this story, lest Walters tie them up in a lawsuit they can't afford to fight.

Walters' closest call happened 30 years ago, when the FBI conducted raids against the Computer Group in 16 states. Walters was a key member of the group's operations, Assistant U. Attorney Eric Johnson says: "[He] was responsible for getting the bets out. And he had a whole series of bookmakers who were willing to take a bet and send bets out to other people, because they wanted to get that information first, so as soon as they took the bet from the Computer Group they could change their line before they got hit.

Walters maintained his innocence, and he was acquitted in a trial filled with plot twists. Just ahead of trial, he won a stroke of luck better than pocket aces. Jane Shoemaker, an inexperienced prosecutor new to the Vegas office, was handed the case. Then the government's star witness -- who was to be responsible for guiding jurors through allegedly incriminating evidence from seized records and audiotapes -- suffered a heart attack the night before he was to testify.

District Judge Lloyd D. George, a staunch conservative with a reputation for favoring prosecutors, invited him to meet with the lead FBI investigator on the case. George said the meeting would take place only if Walters did not inform his attorney, Oscar Goodman, who had become famous for representing mobsters and would later be elected mayor of Las Vegas.

Walters didn't inform Goodman in advance, but he told him after the fact, according to John L. Smith, who wrote a biography on Goodman. Outraged, the attorney filed a motion to dismiss the case. To allow it to proceed, George recused himself, and he was replaced by a liberal-leaning judge from Pennsylvania.

The jury voted not guilty on 64 counts and failed to reach a consensus on 54 others -- which the government dismissed rather than prosecute again. In Computer Group founder Mindlin's opinion, "the judge had to recuse himself, and that is what saved us. Some people suspect that Walters has helped himself stay out of trouble by giving investigators information. Walters denies the allegation, saying all he did was answer questions about the differences between gambling and bookmaking during the Computer Group case.

I am a lot of things, but I am not stupid. If I was gonna be an informant, I would assure you I would have negotiated a deal that I never would have been indicted for betting on sports. After Goodman found out that Walters had cooperated with law enforcement during the Computer Group prosecution, the two parted ways.

Walters says he removed his attorney; Goodman told Smith he quit the case. Goodman initially agreed to be interviewed for this story but changed his mind at the last minute. And like a ghost, Walters seemingly can't be touched. Even many of those who have tried to bring him down admit a grudging respect. After David L. Thompson -- then a Nevada deputy attorney general -- unsuccessfully prosecuted Walters on money-laundering charges in the early s, he was forced to resign.

Now, as federal officials decide whether to move forward with the insider-trading case, Thompson offers his own nickname for William T. He knew the odds were off, and it was a bad bet to play. But it got him thinking—the folks on the other side of that table, the ones taking bets from the players, they were going to make a killing.

That same year, a friend of his at St. Spanky looked at it like the dice game. He also noticed far more kids bought cards than were winning each week, and even after paying off the occasional lucky winner there was still a lot of money left. He asked the boy who was selling them how he could get cut in.

Spanky soon started selling parlay cards for the local bookie to his barber, to the kids in his neighborhood, to family friends. It was huge money for a high school kid in the s. He brought his parlay card business with him to Rutgers, and his earn more than doubled. But sports betting was proving a tough nut to crack. The U. By , gamblers had so permeated the world of professional baseball, the World Series was fixed by a syndicate of big-money gamblers in what would become known as the Chicago Black Sox scandal.

He started gambling in the bleachers of Wrigley Field, and soon found himself making more money from gambling on baseball and football than he made at his day job. He quit and turned to gambling full time. Once bookies figured out how sharp he was they stopped taking bets from him, so by the early s McNeil went to the other side of the desk and started making book himself. He had an idea he thought could actually level the playing field between bookmaker and handicappers like him, and he believed it would prove popular among gamblers and bookies alike.

In doing so, he turned every contest into something closer to a coin flip. By offering bettors a fair contest, he would ideally attract equal action on both sides. Point spreads proved popular, and soon a publisher in Minneapolis named Leo Hirschfield began publishing the spread for games all over the country.

He employed a team of handicappers who talked to contacts across America to obtain information to set their lines. By , there were 23, miles of telegraph lines leased from Western Union to service 20, bookies with up-to-the-minute sports data. Those bookies in turn provided that information to other smaller bookies. In all there were estimated to be more than , bookmakers earning their living from sports betting in the United States in By , there were more than , As attorney general, Robert Kennedy made shutting down the illegal sports betting network in the United States a top priority, believing the proceeds were funding organized crime.

Despite his efforts, by the number of people working in the illegal bookmaking industry in America eclipsed a million. Spanky graduated with a degree in computer science and went to work at Deutsche Bank right out of college. He was earning decent money but he was still spending a lot of time betting on sports.

He read books on handicapping and betting systems. He looked for patterns, for edges wherever he could find them. In the s, sports betting was moving to the internet, with black market bookies decamping for the Caribbean to operate their bookmaking business far from the arm of U. As Spanky combed through one sports betting website after another, it dawned on him that he could use his computer coding skills to beat the bookies.

He could do the same types of things he was doing for finance banks to give himself an edge on sports bets. While sitting in a pizzeria watching a basketball game with his then-girlfriend, he told her his idea. Her response was a shrug. She knew her boyfriend loved puzzles and games. She had no idea how much this particular puzzle would consume him.

Spanky approached a coworker he respected and shared his idea for writing code that could identify positive expected value in sports betting markets. But whenever those games fell right in the middle of the two lines, in this case if the Steelers lost by three points, then they would win both of their bets. Bet after bet Spanky and his colleague just kept losing the vig, never hitting the middle.

Then they hit another, and another, and another. They kept this up for two years without ever taking a dime out of their online accounts. The first time they requested a withdrawal, Spanky says, the bookmaker had them meet someone on the street in Manhattan rather than cash the money out directly to their bank.

A total stranger handed them a sack full of cash. They rushed back to Deutsche Bank and counted it in the restroom. They had never seen that much cash in their lives. It was real money. How big, they wondered, could they make this? The bank they worked for did the same thing they were doing but in financial markets, and their bosses were all filthy rich.

Could betting on sports make them rich, too? In June , the casino reopened as Ocean Resort Casino. Though the property is one of the glitziest in Atlantic City, it is one of its lowest-earning casinos. And on a Monday night in March, it shows.

The teller takes my money and punches the bet into a computer. Back in the s, Bob Martin knew the guy who ran the cleaning crews at the Las Vegas airport. Those newspapers, from towns large and small, far and wide, were his bread and butter. The 10 percent tax on bets handled was too high to make a profit, since sportsbooks were expected to earn roughly only 4 percent over the long run.

This meant the early bookmakers in Las Vegas were mostly no different from the gamblers who bet with them. They had to take positions, to be invested on one side of certain bets. Essentially they had to gamble against their customers. And looking at the prop, I would have probably had to close the place if Hagler won. Hirschfield and the Minneapolis operation had closed up shop in after Robert Kennedy convinced Congress to pass a number of new antigambling laws.

That meant that among legal bookmakers operating in Las Vegas, there was no agreed-upon line for games. Each bookmaker was on their own to take a position. And lines up and down Glitter Gulch sometimes differed wildly. When Martin made his way through town making bets, those lines would quickly coalesce around whatever he was betting, because his opinion was often more respected by the bookmakers than their own.

He asked Martin to come work for him to manage the book and make his lines. Las Vegas remained the epicenter of the sports betting world, both legal and illegal, for nearly a half-century, until the internet changed the landscape in ways Bob Martin and his stack of small-town newspapers could never have imagined. Early on a Tuesday morning, I arrive at the Ocean sportsbook and sit in the front row of seats, my bag full of money clutched in my hands at all times.

After three years of betting on sports on his lunch breaks and on weekends, Spanky Kyrollos was earning more from gambling than from his finance job. He told his wife that he and his partner were quitting Deutsche to pursue their sports betting business full time. Years ago in the pizza parlor after Spanky told her his idea to write code to help him bet on sports, she had dismissed it as a flight of fancy.

This time she knew he was serious. Not only that, if he had more time to devote to it and more help with it, he believed he could scale it up. He and his partner quit their jobs and hired a couple of old friends as their first employees.

To place as much money into action as they needed, they had to make bets in literally hundreds of accounts in sportsbooks all over the world. They wrote code and built betting robots that could automate the bets for them. They taught their friends about how their system worked, and got the friends to a point where they could work virtually independently.

Much of their business was being done with online offshore sportsbooks, most of which were located in Costa Rica. Many of the proprietors of the websites headquartered there were people who had learned the business as illegal bookmakers in the United States. Spanky flew down and worked out deals with the bookmakers to give him credit, rather than requiring him to post large sums of money and cash out through e-wallets like Neteller every time he won. If he could bet on credit, they could settle up stateside in cash.

And bookmaking in Costa Rica was legal. So nobody was doing anything wrong, they figured. One day, while Spanky awaited the birth of his daughter in the hospital, his partner went to a Dunkin Donuts to pick up some money an offshore book owed them. Then, as they got in their cars to leave, they were surrounded by police officers with their guns drawn.

Trap door? For what? The other employees, shaken, followed him out the door. He even expanded his operation beyond middling games, and together with his new brain trust developed new models that allowed him to take positions on games. Fundamental analysis is handicapping. You make numbers. Technical analysis, you look at the market. His team started spending their days watching screens with lines from sportsbooks all over the world, and using finely tuned models to analyze the various line movements and interpret what they meant.

In some ways it was similar to what day traders might do in the stock market. By , middling and steam betting had made Spanky what he deemed a fortune, and he had made a name for himself. After Congress passed the Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act in , it became next to impossible for American gamblers to deposit and withdraw money from offshore gambling sites.

Not all bookmakers decamped from the Caribbean, however. Those who stayed behind had to largely forgo doing business with the American market. Johnny Aitken, who went from working as a runner for a major gambling syndicate in Australia all the way up to becoming CEO of the Australia-based sportsbook PointsBet, watched it happen. But recreational gamblers either get lucky and win or they go broke, and if they get too lucky, too often they get banned.

Either way there is a law of diminishing returns for the bookmaker who will tolerate no risk, unless that bookmaker can continually locate new, untapped pools of players, like an energy company constantly looking for new pockets of oil or gas buried beneath the shale. These became the two prevailing models of bookmaking. On one side were the European-style books. On the other side were companies like Pinnacle, who offered lower odds and took on larger bets.

Pinnacle and BetCRIS were known to let certain sharp players bet their lines before they went public. One side gets a bet at house limits, the other side gets valuable information. This is the way it worked for many years, more or less.

But according to Peabody, the days of posted limits and sharp players being able to bet started to end when William Hill arrived in Nevada. Of the physical sportsbooks in Nevada, William Hill operates more than If someone is good enough to beat you why not use that information internally? Take the bet at a smaller amount and use it to move your line. It is completely false to say that we ban people simply for winning.

There are literally tens of thousands of customers in Nevada that are winners at William Hill. In the rare situation where we do prohibit someone from wagering with us, there are a variety of reasons why. If someone tells you that the reason that they are prohibited from wagering with William Hill is because they are winning, they are not telling you the whole story.

Total, total, utter bullshit and you can quote me on that. By , Spanky says he was allowed to bet directly in only five places in the entire world. He had three kids, with a fourth on the way. His business had been profitable and predictable. His employees were happy. He was becoming a wealthy man. But the European-style changes in the market could potentially kill his livelihood. That meant that he needed to keep millions of dollars in action to earn enough to support his family and his employees.

And with so many sportsbooks refusing his action, he needed to get creative. They would provide Spanky with their own accounts to bet into with other bookmakers, and they could split the proceeds. These bookmakers already knew he was a winning player, and most leaped at the opportunity to make a profit off his plays, while at the same time taking a bite out of their competition.

Bookmakers were more skittish about taking on risk than Spanky had ever seen before. With so little independent data and analysis of their own lines, bookmakers were flinching at every shadow. I give him the money and take the betslip, then return to my chair in the front row. The game then appears on the screen, only the line is now Xavier They should have given Toledo MORE points, not fewer, to get someone to take the other side of the game and balance out my bet.

Instead, by moving the line in my direction, they were trying to entice me to bet more! I clutch my backpack and go back up to the counter to speak to the manager. He punches it into the computer and waits for word from the trading office in Las Vegas. When I return to my seat, the game flashes again, and this time the line goes back to Back to the counter, and another bet approved.

This time, the line moves to You can keep sending people with new names and fresh money. He was betting much smaller amounts. Instead of reacting to my bet, William Hill reacted to the lines moving at all the places Spanky was betting, from -5 to When I left the casino the line was already at One of the people Spanky partnered with in to make bets for him was a bookmaker in Allentown, New Jersey.

Investigators overheard Spanky talking to the bookmaker about money he was owed.